Student 1 (FJA) MGT 530-
Operations Management

Redundancy in Products and Process

organization can provide the market with goods or services or both of them. The
design of goods and services will be established according to what clients want
and required in order to satisfy their needs. In fact, quality and reliability
of products and services are essential to attract, satisfy, and retain
customers. Stevenson (2012) described reliability as a measure of the ability
of a service, a product, a part, or the whole system to progress under a given
set of conditions. Furthermore, product or service sustainability can be
achieved by considering the reliability, therefore, the higher reliability of
product or service leads to the fewer resources usage and product

According to Stevenson (2012), reliability can be improved by several methods,
one of which is redundancy. Since overall system reliability is a role of the
reliability of each component, system reliability can be increased by the use
of backup components. The process of providing backup components for a product
to increase its reliability is known as redundancy. Redundancy can be in
process or products, for example, Error detection and correction and the Global
Positioning System (GPS) is an example of a redundancy in process;
whereas, the uninterruptible power supplies (UPS) is a redundant
product. UPS is a device that allows your computer to keep running
for at least a short time when the primary power source is lost. It also
provides protection from power surges. A UPS contains a battery that work
when the device senses a loss of power from the primary source(Jungreis, 2001).

As I am working in a research organization, protecting the information that is
stored in the databases is critical. Data center recovery strategy is deployed
in my organization as a redundant process. This process enables the
organization to build a back up for databases and effectively recovered from
natural or human disasters such as cyber attack, equipment failure, or
Finally, it is important for effective data center disaster
recovery to maintain the system and the device, which will monitor system
health and reroute traffic immediately to a backup data center in the event of
failure (Mukherjee,
Habib, Dikbiyik, 2014).


Mukherjee, B., Habib, M., & Dikbiyik,
F. (2014). Network adaptability from disaster disruptions and cascading
failures.Communications Magazine, IEEE,52(5), 230-238.
Jungreis, A. M. (2001).U.S. Patent No. 6,184,593. Washington, DC: U.S. Patent and
Trademark Office.
Stevenson, W. (2012).Operations management (12th ed.). New York, NY:
McGraw-Hill Irwin.

Student 2 (MDH)

Discussion Board Module 5

The real world is full of surprises. Human
service organizations exist in a situation of uncertainty. Individual
performance is imperfect, service conveyance is often flawed, resources are
unstable, and communication is unclear and inaccurate. Instability is a typical
piece of organizational life. The more the uncertainty, the more the potential
for failure in organizational systems. Uncertainty is the reason that
redundancies exist.

Redundancy is the use of backup components to increase reliability
Stevenson, (2012) and saw as excess capacity that gives options in the face of
uncertainty. Such alternatives are believed to make the system more effective
and successful because when one component of the system fails, the whole system
does not fail.

In fact, the arguments against redundancy are generally based on the
belief that duplication is a waste of valuable resources and that, as great
stewards, managers and planners should endeavor to eliminate all types of
redundancy. Arguments in favor of redundancy tend to concentrate on the
increased system reliability influenced by redundancy in the face of
environmental or operational uncertainty. (Miranda, Lerner, 1995).

Precisely Redundancy is resource obtaining often makes the
financial management of the agency more complex and requires more commitment to
resource monitoring. However, it has a number of advantages. For one thing, it
can deliver a more reliable stream of resources into the agency. At the point
when one source of funding is disrupted, the viability of the whole agency is
not jeopardized. Likewise, the agency is less vulnerable to external control
since it is no longer dependent on a single source for its funding. (Miranda,
Lerner, 1995).

Since that the Power outages obsession Leafs a
lot of people and industrialists, the holders of housing are afraid of free and
factory owners complain about the loss because of the sudden drop of the stream
for them, and in spite of that the Saudi Electricity Company established
mechanisms to deal with this problem and trying to find appropriate solutions.

According to (, 2016), Saudi Electricity
company is preparing to cope with the additional loads by enhancing the
creating capacity to meet growing demand for electricity, which presented a
number of producing units capacity inside the project of the plant expansion in
Riyadh, which is actualized by the company as part of its preparations to face
the loads expected in any time and to meet the growing demand for

Miranda, R., & Lerner, A.
organizational redundancy, and the privatization of public services. Public Administration
Review, 55(2), 193.,. (2016).Saudi Electricity Company. Retrieved 7 February 2016, from”>
Stevenson, W. (2012).Operations management (12th ed.). New York, NY:
McGraw-Hill Irwin. ISBN-13: 9780078024108

Student 3 (MBA)
Board Module 5

Simple problems are when the destination is known,
the path to reach it is known, and it is simple to follow the plan. They are
predictable and the outcome is known. For example, following a recipe to baking
a cake is a simple problem. It is what you can measure. An example from fragile
and conflict-affected environments could be knowledge change resulting from a
well-tested and delivered training.
Complex problems refer to interventions where the
causal pathway is adaptive or emergent interventions where it is not possible
to set out in advance the details of what will be done. The intervention may
not have pre-identified outcomes, but rather a vague, goal-level description of
the desired end-result without a clear pathway of how to get there; it is
developmental. It might also include investigation of recursive feedback loops
and emergent outcomes, such as unintended changes and resulting system
main similarity and difference between resolving simple and complex problems is that the
approach to solve both of these is similar where as the number of steps and
amount of analysis is different. However, there are 4 main processes to find a
solution for any problem. They are the following:
1. Define the problem.
Diagnose the situation so that your focus
is on the problem, not just its symptoms. Helpful techniques at this stage
include using flowcharts to identify the expected steps of a process and
cause-and-effect diagrams to define and analyze root causes.
2. Generate alternative solutions
Postpone the selection of one solution
until several alternatives have been proposed. Having a standard with which to
compare the characteristics of the final solution is not the same as defining the
desired result. A standard allows us to evaluate the different intended results
offered by alternatives. When you try to build toward desired results, it’s
very difficult to collect good information about the process.
3. Evaluate and select an alternative
Skilled problem solvers use a series of
considerations when selecting the best alternative. They consider the extent to
– A particular alternative will solve the
problem without causing other unanticipated problems.
– All the individuals involved will accept
the alternative.
– Implementation of the alternative is
– The alternative fits within the
organizational constraints.
4. Implement and follow up on the solution
Leaders may be called upon to order the
solution to be implemented by others, “sell” the solution to others or
facilitate the implementation by involving the efforts of others. The most
effective approach, by far, has been to involve others in the implementation as
a way of minimizing resistance to subsequent changes.
Bazerman, M. H., & Moore, D. A.
(2013). Judgment in Managerial Decision Making (8th Ed.). Hoboken, NJ: John
Wiley and Sons.

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