CHAPTER TWO REVIEW OF LITERATURE Introduction In early days of Islamic civilization, the purpose of education was to read the Quran. Islam has always focused on the education of young people and has recognized its value in its philosophy. Recitation was the basic learning style and it was dependent on the teacher’s capability and pupil’s ability to learn. Further, memorizing was the most significant feature of an Islam learning method. The present study captures several Islamic methods as advocated in Islam from its sources and tries to understand their current use in the Islamic education system. Importance of Teaching Methods Teachings methodology is regarded an integral component in quality teaching pedagogy (Arifin, 2004). With reference to al-Syaibani, the various methods of teaching are the channeled activities prepared by the instructors with reference to the topic, as well as the shaping the characters of their students, constructing the learning atmosphere and the system which gathers knowledge and builds up morals and behaviors (Kasim & Tamuri, 2010). Teaching methods, as defined by al-Abrashi (Arifin, 2004), are considered the pathway while the students are prepared themselves to learn the subjects being lectured to them. In simper terms, it comprises of the strategy, which the teachers create prior to their entering the classroom in order to execute the lesson for attaining the set aims. Teaching methods related to the Islamic education necessitate widespread modernization, since the existing improvement among the educational sciences must not be detached from the Islamic education theme. Thus, constant development among the field of Islamic education, particularly in the methods of teaching, can make a constructive influence on balancing the progression related to sciences, from the divine and physical viewpoints as well as the worldly and hereafter perspectives. According to Al-Attas (1980), Islamic education is described as a procedure, which entails a complete individual, comprising of his/her logical, religious and social extents. The main objective is to create a well-balanced growth of the individual’s personality, through enhancing their tangible living circumstances, as well as grooming them in a way which directs their behaviors, activities, decisions and approaches towards their day-to-day life matters according to the governance structure provided by the moral and spiritual principles of Islamic education (Pryor & Rasekh, 2004). Hence, augmenting the teaching methodology of Islamic education requires appropriate utilization of appropriate teaching methods, which assist in expediting the intellect level of the students regarding Islamic values and beliefs. Education and Teaching in Islam A leading scientist in Islam during 1332-1406 AD stated that The Quran was the principle of all religious education including reading and writing (Subh, 1993). The methods adapted by the teacher varied depending on their knowledge and preparation. The techniques varied because of the motivation of students, and their willingness to learn (Ahmad, 1989). Az-Zarnooj suggested that the good teacher of that time was aware of his students’ abilities and personality(Ahmad, 1989). Methods of teaching were derived from the Quran and Sunnah. Ahmad (1989) cites Az-Zarnooj that teachers should preach with concern and watchfulness and advises: “…I commend to you in the composing of your speech five things, if you are obedient to him who makes recommendation to you meaning you well. Do not neglect the purpose of the discourse, the time, its quality (how to speak, in low voice or loudly, quietly…), its quantity (in condense manner) and its place…” (p.35). The children are at the best to be taught at a young age and the Quran is of the view that teaching should be in a constant and encouraging manner. It is believed by the Muslims that Prophet Muhammad (Peace be upon him) was sent as an absolute example of a teacher, and laid the foundations of how teaching should be carried out. An insight of several methods of education from the Quran and Sunnah suggest that a teacher has to be a good listener and should lead by example. The prevalent methods subsequently became either preaching (student/listener is expected to just obey) or counseling (student/listener is guided towards a point of view) and is totally dependent on the type of teacher. These old methods still appear to be in use today (Ahmad, 1989). Education by preaching, advice and commandment (Alnaseeha). The Quran recommends an influential approach towards teaching, which is comprised of methods that include preaching and advice. These methods strongly impacts the child’s religious, psychological and social development point of view. The instructors need to realize its significance among the education of children, preparing them for their mental and social growth, while directing them towards interactive and mental wisdom. Az-Zarnooj advised learners “…Ask advice in all matters and be firm and exert patience with his teachers” (Ahmad, 1989, pp. 100, 102). He is also of the view that “…It is necessary to choose …to ask advice in all matters” (Ibid, pp. 98, 100). He even suggests a series of instructions to the teachers and to the learners. “…Know that it is not obligatory for every Muslim, man of woman, to seek all aspects of learning, but only that in keeping with his situation in life (‘Ilm al-Hal)” (Ibid, p.83). This suggests that teaching was not only knowledge based but also had a moral and social aspect. Indeed, the Quran emphasizes better ways of learning “…God commands justice, the doing of good, and liberality to kith and kin, and forbids all shameful deeds and injustice and rebellion. He instructs you that ye may receive admonition” (Quran: S.16; V. 90, Ali, 1946). Muslims believe that the Almighty Allah (God) has made the society responsible for their children by teaching them well and forbidding wrongdoing. Teaching by repetition (Altikrar). It is vital that preaching is backed up by the element of repetition. Az-Zarnooj (1947) defined teaching by repetition as Tikrar. He implied that teaching through repetition is a necessary tool in effective learning. As an example, Allah’s (God) messenger had a habit of repeating a spoken word thrice so that it could be fully understood and also not taken in out-of-context. From the learning perspective, the student must tally and compute the amount of repetition he requires to memorize them. As stated by Ahmad (1989), the journey for seeking knowledge is counted as one of the most dignified and challenging undertakings. Consequently, he advised the students to promote learning and ratiocination in order to possess the already preserved knowledge, in accordance with the Quran, through sacred figures including David, Solomon, Noah and Moses. Students should determine for themselves the right amount of repetition required for effective learning. Islam has advocated for efficient styles of teaching so as to harvest the divine emotions in correct way and to train the mind of humans accordingly. The educationalists must recognize this aspect as being the most significant in the education and experiment by way of maximum learning to students on both behavioral and mental maturity. Teaching by narratives (Akbaar Algasas). The narrative style consists of storytelling, and creating a long-term intellectual impression on the learners. The Quran describes stories of apostles and their companions. Among the Islamic education, these stories extracted from the Quran as well as the life of Holy Prophet (PBUH) are related to the narratives derived from his companions and followers. The stories found in the Holy Quran are a means for passing on the message embedded in Islam. Moreover, teaching by narrative is distinguished from the myth, because the main objective it carries is not the recitation of a tale, but to strengthen the belief of Muslims further educating him for what is right or wrong morally. A dilemma is inferred by them which are resolved in preference to the believer who gains faith in God (Allah). Moreover, they play the role of a vivid and academic instrument for the instructors to use, and the descriptions of the narratives can be attuned to such an approach which suits the mindset of the knowledge seekers. (Al-Kahledy, 2010) Allah (God) conferred the knowledge of the best events and stories to his messenger Muhammad (PBUH) so that people can have truth and lessons altogether (Ulwan, 1994). In fact, the purpose of these stories mentioned in the Quran is to draw the reader’s attention. It is a tool to deliver the Islamic message in such a way that the learner can correct himself in the light of these stories and elevate his moral conduct. An amazing feature of these stories is that a teacher can explain it to different students with different mental levels and yet able to connect and reach the required goal. Teaching by dialogue (Almonagashah). Another approach adopted by the primitive Muslim preachers and being studied by the researchers is the method of dialogue. This entails having a conversation with people, in the course of which queries are put forward for the reason of gaining their responsiveness and sparking intelligence. This process triggers the intellect of learners and their attention through the process of asking questions. Az-Zarnooj describes “…Suitability of questions (debate) and discussion is far greater than the repetition method alone, as it has repetition but followed by another interesting element that is: Questioning for an hour compared to a month of repetition has far greater effect on learner.” (Ahmad, 1989, p. 140) More, Az-Zarnooj notifies that effectiveness of this method not only depends on the involvement of learner but on the candid nature of teacher himself. There exist various approaches for turning the conversation into a thought-provoking dialogue which includes: 1) Stimulating emotions and feelings can be achieved through presenting the topic in an energetic and faithful manner, 2) By tempting the student to keep a track of the conversation so he/she can be acquainted with the supposition. (Al-Kahledy, 2010) Dialogue that entails questions is considered one of the effective means for urging the intellects to embrace Islam. There are several ways to effectively educate students such as, developing interest and feelings towards the subject by explaining the subject in an exciting and realistic way (. (Al-Kahledy, 2010) The educator should make the students to follow the dialogue so that he is able to understand about the taught lesson. Indeed, Az-Zarnooj says that the questioning method is a way through which intellectuals can be encouraged to enter Islam. As Ahmad (1989) quotes “…And certainly Abu Hanifa used to study by asking questions and discussing them in his shop” (p. 143). He also emphasizes on the debate method “…You should discuss the subject in a way that you live your lives so that it may benefit you in a way you want. It is important to gain knowledge through discussion, argument and questioning” (Ahmad, 1989, pp. 138-139). Teaching by metaphors (Tarb Alamthal). According to the definition provided by Merriam-Webster website (2014), metaphor is described as a figure of speech, which explains a particular topic through affirming that it is, at a point of comparison, similar as another or otherwise dissimilar thing. Metaphors are always a strong aid in teaching. The Holy Quran beseeches about those people who give no importance to the signs of God (Allah) spread all around them. These people are akin to those who live their lives in ignorance of truth even after receiving the wisdom but do not understand. Quran says: …The similitude of those who were charged with the (obligations of the) law, but who subsequently failed in those (obligations), is that of a donkey which carries huge tomes (but understand them not). Evil is the similitude of people who falsify the Sign of God: And God guides not people who do wrong. (Quran, Al-Jumua (62), Verse No: 5, p.553) In this example, donkey is an animal that carries a lot of load but doesn’t understand about the load meaning it to be a dumb animal. The importance of a role model has its significance in the Islamic ways of teaching, without it one cannot achieve the desired aims. The Prophet (PBUH) addressed people on their level of intelligence. This is what modern education demands, to put the student in the situation as the leading role. The course set out for the students should be according to the needs and interests of the students. According to Az-Zarnooj (1947), teachers should rely on the Quran’s parables in all situations and activities for achieving the aims. This method has educational and psychological value, facilitating the comprehension and training in a positive manner (Ahmad, 1989). Teaching through practice and application (Altatbeeg). The study undertaken by Al-Kahledy (2010) over the learning framework attributes great significance to the process of teaching by means of practice. The teaching methods by practice and application have a great influence over the soul and endorse knowledge. Research suggests that actions and practices are firmly and communally linked with every component of learning. The activities which involve learning cannot be distinguished from the subject, goals and enthusiasm, since these activities are the outcome of this motivation and direct to it. As suggested by few of the scholars, lessons given must be substituted with class exercises which involve a large proportion of student participation (Knowles, 1986). The learning methods proposed by Az- Zarnooj (1947) have an important aspect of teaching through practicing and application. The method of application helps learners to enhance their ability to gain knowledge. Activities performed during the classes enabled learners to be motivated and give up the laziness and boredom and lead to the aimed results. Educators propose that a lecture should be switched to exercises through which a large number of students participate and thus learn in a healthy manner (Knowles, 1986). Quoting Abu-Hanifa, a leading scientist in Islam, Az-Zarnooj (1947) states, “…the purpose of learning is to act accordingly” (Ahmad, 1989, p. 91). This indicates that whatever a student has learned, he should actually know how to apply in his individual and social life. The method of Prophet’s teaching consists of practice and repetition. He used to pray on the platform and his companions followed him thus, setting an example of repetition and a model of practicing method. According to Sunnah, the learner should repeat what he is told, so that it can be corrected if there is a mistake. The responsibility lies with the teacher, that they should explain the subject in an easy manner so that everyone can benefit from it equally. Therefore, the speeches of prophets on Fridays were not long. Instead they consisted of short and easy words understood by all. Teaching by the dictation method (Alktaba Wa Alamla). Another teaching method that was highlighted as an effective methodology was dictation. This entails the grooming and training of a child to acquire noble qualities and ethics. A healthy atmosphere along with the Islamic education provides the individual the greatest of spiritual moralities and individual noble qualities. Therefore, majority of the instructors preferred the teaching method of dictation as the finest of the combination used for delivering lectures: dictation, delivery and debate. Following the dictation method, teaching sessions are usually maintained at Friday prayers in which the preachers recited from a book or from his heart. Among a scenario which consisted a large population at the congregation prayers, scholars were normally allotted in order to facilitate the process of dictating from the preacher’s notes (at-Tabrizi, 1990). Dictation is yet another highlighted method proposed by Az-Zarnooj. This method of learning is cited in many Hadiths (Sunnah). For example, …It is better for someone to educate his son than to give a measure of charity. …The best thing that a father can give his son is good manners. Teach your children and family goodness and give them good manners. (at-Tabrizi, 1990, Vols. 1, 2) According to Az-Zarnooj, dictation was used as a learning tool in medieval times. “…I shall dictate to you what knowledge consists of. Since the educated man is honored only by his knowledge and knowledge of the law is the most worthy of honor” (Ahmad, 1989, pp.128-130). The path to obtain knowledge is like making the pen ready at the student’s disposal on every occasion, in order to write down the matter of scientific interest. The student should focus more on taking the notes rather than try to memorize as the former is a more significant way of learning. Research about Islamic teaching Abdurrahman Nahlawi study-1999 The goal of his study is to know the meaning of the Quran methods in education and its impact on changing the human behavior. That is can be through training the learners on meditation, use their brain deeply and emotions. Also, the study found that the Quran organize human needs and help them to arrange their behavior. The study also demonstrates the effects of Quran methods on the whole human growth, mentality, sensuality and intellectuality. Sharif Hamad Study – 2004 The study aimed to identify the common methods that used by Islamic teachers in Gaza while teaching Islamic education and its justifications used. The most important result is that the common methods that used are Persuasion method and dialogue method but the least common methods are Self-education and Individualized Education. Also, the author found that there are no statistical differences between male and female teachers. The reasons of using these methods is related to The number of students in the class, the kinds of subject and some teachers do not have experience of other teaching methods to use. Public High School, Saudi Arabia High school in Saudi Arabia is the last grade level before the higher education and it is three years (Farag, 2009). The high school goals include developing the scientific thinking among students and deepening the spirit of research and experimentation. Also, high school provides an opportunity for students to pursue their higher studies. High school aims to build people who can take the responsibility of family and bring awareness (Al-Aqeel, 2005). There are specific goals of the Islamic classes such as developing the proper intellectual foundation for the study of science and knowledge, making the Quran and the Sunnah the guide and judgment, Knowing God and be close to him as well, also the classes aim to help students to be collaborated with others in order to help the community and country and Giving the students the correct way of thinking and solving problems of social, economic and political. Islamic classes also aim to create the human mind and thought and perceptions about the universe and life (An-Nahlawi, 2010) Islamic Classes in Public High School, Saudi Arabia. There are five kinds of Islamic classes in public high school at Saudi Arabia. These classes are Quran, Tafseer, Tawheed, Fiqh, and Hadith. Each type of these classes has its own objectives and purposes. These objective and purposes described by Fosool of teaching Islamic education Alkhlifa and Hasheem book. The following section provides an analysis of these types of classes. Quran class. Quran is more than one thousand four hundred years old but did not change or alter by even a single word (Alkhlifa and Hasheem, 2005). The foundation of Quran is based on the doctrine of Islam and legislation (Alkhlifa and Hasheem, p.100, Arabic Book). One of the goals of teaching Quran is to train students reading correctly. Another objective is to increase the scientific outcome of the given teachings. Reading the Quran helps students to find useful information to help them understand human psychology and behavior. It also gives students confidence of by reading it out loud (Alkhlifa and Hasheem, p. 100-101, Arabic Book). Tafseer class. Tafseer is the explanation of the Quran. The objectives of the Tafseer classes is to enable the students understand the legal provisions of the Quran and understand the meanings of the Quran deeply. Devising the legal provisions from the Quran, it targets to increase the vocabulary and ideas of the students by explaining them the meanings of different words and sentences of the Quran (Alkhlifa and Hasheem, p.110, Arabic Book). Hadith class. Hadith are the words spoken by the holy Prophet Mohammad (PBUH) that aim to elaborate the teachings of Quran and provide a walkthrough for Muslims in every aspect of living a life as per Islamic teachings. Hadith aims to train students on how to devise rules and provisions based on Islamic teachings emerging from Prophet Mohammad (PBUH). It aims to confirm the mental side and taken into account in devising provisions. It aims to develop the emotional side of students (Alkhlifa and Hasheem, p. 122, Arabic Book). Tawheed class. Tawheed means the doctrine that Muslims believe in. It focuses on studying the basic provision of Islam that Allah Almighty is one and has no companion. The aim of Tawheed is to communicate the correct belief to the hearts of students. These classes aim to purify the fads and myths by giving students the correct belief with evidence. The other objective is to urge the students to turn towards God by giving them proper evidence of the truth of the religion (Alkhlifa and Hasheem, p. 134, Arabic Book). Fiqh class. Fiqh focus on teaching how to worship Allah and provides comprehensive guidance on social, economic and political issues. It also aims to enlighten the students on how to deal with themself and others. It aims to teach them how to behave ethically in every aspect of life and understand the doctrine of ethics (Alkhlifa and Hasheem, p. 147, Arabic Book). Summary In conclusion, the purpose of explaining subject area so that these methods could be used in modern day times in public schools of Saudi Arabia. Islam has adopted practical ways of education and teaching. There are five different types of classes that aim to help the students become better followers of the religion.
CHAPTER TWO REVIEW OF LITERATURE Introduction In early days of Islamic civilization, the purpose of education was to read the Quran. Islam has always focused on the education of young people and has recognized its value in its philosophy. Recitation was the basic learning style and it was dependent on the teacher’s capability and pupil’s ability to learn. Further, memorizing was the most significant feature of an Islam learning method. The present study captures several Islamic methods as advocated in Islam from its sources and tries to understand their current use in the Islamic education system.
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