Read chapters 9 and 10 in our text book:Please download the text book from the link
You must use the materials in the lecture, and readings to address questions. Write in APA format for citations and references as well as format for the margins. response to the questions using sound scholarly support peer reviewed only.
Choose a large Middle Eastern organization that sells a product or multiple products. In a 5 page paper, not including the cover and reference pages,
Provide an overview of the company. Then Start with an introductory paragraph that elicits interest in the topic, what you will be doing in the paper, and how you will deliver those things. Include your thesis. Within the introductory paragraph you will have your thesis and mapping. Your thesis should give the reader a preview of your essay in three to 4 sentences, the thesis also acts as a mapping tool for you to keep the essay focused. The thesis is found at the end of the introductory paragraph. Be concise in your thesis and specifically state your claims in the paper and what you will specifically discuss. The thesis clarifies the purpose of the paper.
Analyze that company and its products in terms of product and service quality, costs of quality, total quality management, and quality tools. Conduct research on the organization to find out information on the quality measure that the organization uses.
Be sure that you use at least 8scholarly support peer reviewed only, outside sources other than just the textbook.
You have to explain each of the above terms and concepts first with reference, then you have to link and say how is that concept important in and to the operations management and why?, and then explain how does it appear in your example of The company that you chose with references.
Wrap up with a conclusion paragraph:
Your conclusion should synthesize rather than repeat the main ideas verbatim. Usually, the first sentence of the conclusion is a rephrasing of the thesis. The conclusion reminds the reader what your paper is about and allows you to make a final point without introducing new information. The conclusion is simply restatement of the thesis with how you achieved your goals for the paper. You might have something like the following in your conclusion:
“This paper discussed various types of quality measures, explained product and service quality, and why it is important to the operation’s management, explained……………, applied the aforementioned measures to the company of…, …………….., and finished with a projection as to ………………….. The Module
For Your Success In this module, you will learn about the management of quality and quality control.
Remember, this week you have the fourth Critical Thinking Assignment and required readings to complete. There is no Live Session this week.
- Analyze the evolution of quality management, the dimensions of product and service quality, cost of quality, total quality management, and quality tools.
1. Total Quality Management (TQM)
The idea of totalquality management (TQM) is that the culture of the organization is to constantly look for ways to improve quality and to increase the satisfaction of the customers served. This can be for the goods produced or the services offered by the organization. One of the biggest hurdles to overcome with total quality management is that it needs to become engrained in the culture of the organization, and everyone needs to be on board with it for it to be successful.
Of course, changing a culture takes time, so this cannot be instituted overnight. However, small things can be done to help foster the environment of TQM. First and foremost, the leadership of the organization must be involved and on board with the philosophy of total quality management and they need to communicate their expectations for this new philosophy to the employees.
TQM requires a bit of a different mindset, which is also why it may make it more difficult to institute in an organization. It constantly requires people to ask the question “Is there a better way to do this?” In a previous module, you learned about the process of payroll and how an easier way was developed to manage payroll using tools and technologies that were in place. That process improvement example did not come from the people who run payroll, however. It came from management and the IT department’s stating that there was an easier way if payroll would just use the systems that are already available. The real trick is to get people who are actually involved in the processes to start to think about easier ways that the processes and tasks can be completed, and to have them actively seek out ways to improve those processes and tasks.
TQM involves a culture of problem-solving, which Stevenson (2015) describes in Table 9.7, Basic Steps in Problem Solving. Along with the problem-solving approach, TQM includes use of various tools and methods to accomplish process improvement. One such tool is the ShewhartPlan-Do-Study-Act Cycle; another is the Motorola-invented Six Sigma methodology. Specifically, Six Sigma means no more than 3.4 defects per million opportunities. A Six Sigma organization may also consider itself a “lean” organization when it uses flexible operations to reduce resources, whether people, inventory, floor space, power, or the like. You will learn more about lean operations in Module 14.
Consider several other tools used for quality management in this video, including both Lean and Six Sigma.Introduction to Lean Six Sigma and Process Capability https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OToakjR5s9Y
This video includes a brief overview of both Lean and Six Sigma, which is followed by a discussion and example of Process Capability.
2. Payroll Process Revisited
Part of the idea surrounding total quality management is that you are doing something that provides more quality for the customer. Well, the term customer can mean very different things, depending upon where you work in a given organization. For the payroll department, the customer is the employee who is receiving a paycheck for the work performed. That customer really gets to decide what will add value to the product, which in this case is a paycheck or pay advice.
It was determined that being able to access that information (and the entire history of pay advices for the past 10 years anywhere that there is an internet connection) provides value to the (internal) customer. Additionally, when employees put their own time electronically into the system, it increases their responsibility for keying it in correctly and takes that responsibility away from the payroll department. It also speeds up the process, so if there was overtime in a week, it was sure to be paid on the next run of payroll instead of sometimes having it caught up in the payroll department and then having to wait two more weeks to receive that overtime pay. These are all valuable to the customer.
Let’s look at another example of TQM from a manufacturing organization standpoint. In manufacturing, a TQM culture is usually implemented through TQM systems that can reduce defects, which in turn increase profits while—hopefully—also increasing customer satisfaction.
As we will learn in upcoming modules, while the customer is at the center of TQM efforts, in a manufacturing example, the customer is usually not directly involved; whereas in service examples, the customer is the heart of TQM. For more insights into a manufacturing example, see Rahman and Attar’s findings (2009) as they look at implementation of TQM in manufacturing industries in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Backward Forward
3. Determining Value
In the previous payroll system scenario, determining what was valuable to the customer was fairly simple because the customer was in-house, and it was easy to ask them what they would like to see. However, determining what is valuable to the customer is not always that easy. When the customers are spread out over the entire globe or are from many different backgrounds, figuring out what they determine to be valuable is difficult, and sometimes nearly impossible.
Caterpillar (Cat®) is considered a to be a leading manufacturer of construction and mining equipment, diesel and natural gas engines, industrial gas turbines, and diesel-electric locomotives globally. See how Caterpillar utilizes Six Sigma for quality management within its organization.Six Sigma at Caterpillar Go to the Video
By setting the highest quality standards, in measuring their ability to achieve those standards, companies like Caterpillar can and do improve their bottom line performance. The methods they use to determine and measure their quality commitment also give them the opportunity to market their quality standards to their customers.
4. Obstacles for TQM
Obviously, from what has been stated in this lecture, one can realize that there are some potential issues and obstacles for implementing TQM in any organization. One of the main issues is the lack of a customer focus in an organization. Again, these could be internal customers or external customers. In the case of the payroll system, the customers are internal to the organization. However, in the case of the airline industry, the customers are external. In a manufacturing example, the customers are also external. Either way, if the culture of the organization is not centered on what the customer wants and needs, the idea of total quality management is never going to work.
The second obstacle to implementing such a system is a communication issue within the organization. Most organizations would agree that there isa lack of communication throughout the organization. This poses a very big hurdle when it comes to productivity at all, let alone total quality management. Each part of the organization must communicate with the other parts of the organization in order to make sure that everyone is on the same page for the changes that are made. If the supervisors and staff were not made aware of the process changes for the payroll system, it would be very difficult to implement such a system. If downstream in the manufacturing process supervisors and staff were not aware of changes that might deliver raw goods sooner, backlog situations might occur.
Three individuals are credited with the inception of the TQM movement. First was Walter Shewhart, who favored a statistical view of quality control. Shewhart had a great influence on both Joseph Juran and W. Edwards Deming. Both Juran and Deming were instrumental in working with Japanese manufacturers after World War II. Deming’s 14 points served as a model for implementing quality in an organization. Table 9.1 details those 14 points. Two of his points focus squarely on education and training.
Walk through the process steps of Lean Six Sigma with an example process improvement initiative.Lean Six Sigma Project Case Study: Reduce Procurement Cycle Time https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xkUwU7U9U64
On the theme of “Six Sigma Made Easy”, this video highlights how one might reduce time within the procurement cycle.
Determining quality and value, and managing for quality and value in the organization, no matter the industry, is a very important aspect of operations management. Understanding that the customers determine the value is a very large part of the battle, and getting employees on board with that focus is important as well. In order to implement a total quality management strategy successfully, it has to become the culture of the organization, and that change must start at the top.