Abstract
Internet Service Provider is considered as the main component of the Internet, and have
an essential role to keep the Internet available and steady. ISP provides services that
meet the needs of customers. According to that, ISP’s network should be built accurately
to prevent the denial of service as much as possible and provide the services in an
efficient way.
As the Internet become a primary portion of the communications infrastructure of the
world, today’s ISPs have a considerable number of challenges, which include: (i)
availability while meeting the increasing number of customers, (ii) supporting more and
more services to keep the customer satisfied, and (iii) offering high performance services
to meet the requirements of customers.
This project takes a principled ways to deal with these challenges. The project begins by
presenting some background information about ISP network architecture using OPNET.
The basic configuration of network design, routing and addressing are explained briefly.
In order to deal with prefixes information from customer connections, different
techniques are compared. It also discusses the basic types of ISP’s connectivity. The
technologies and the applications that are used in the project are explained concisely. It
also gives a brief information about the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan, where the
project will be applied. This project also presents how the required network
configurations are applied practically on OPNET. Six scenarios of network configurations
are created depending on two main topologies. The Six scenarios are built using OPNET
to select the most efficient one to design and implement the project.
Finally, all scenarios are simulated, tested, analysed and compared based on the
OPNET’s results and the background research. The produced results are used to
compare and verify various aspects of the design in different areas of topology,
availability and applications’ performance. The overall test results of the proposed
design were presented based on availability and applications performance in data and
multimedia.
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Table of Contents
Abstract ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 2
Acknowledgments ………………………………………………………………………………………………… 3
Dedication…………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 4
Table of Contents …………………………………………………………………………………………………. 5
List of Figures ………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 7
List of Tables ……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 9
Chapter 1: Introduction ……………………………………………………………………………………….. 11
1.1 Introduction to nationwide ISP …………………………………………………………………………..11
1.2 Project Aims ……………………………………………………………………………………………………12
1.3 Project Outline…………………………………………………………………………………………………12
Chapter 2: Background Research ……………………………………………………………………………. 14
2.1 Introduction …………………………………………………………………………………………………………14
2.2 ISP Network Architecture ……………………………………………………………………………………….14
2.2.1 Interior Gateway Protocol ……………………………………………………………………………………14
2.2.2 Network Layout………………………………………………………………………………………………….15
The Core Layer ……………………………………………………………………………………………………….15
The Aggregation Layer……………………………………………………………………………………………..16
The Network Edge Layer…………………………………………………………………………………………..17
2.2.3 Network Addressing Methodology…………………………………………………………………..18
Loopback Addressing……………………………………………………………………………………………….18
Link Addressing ………………………………………………………………………………………………………18
Customer Addressing ………………………………………………………………………………………………19
2.2.4 Customer connectivity …………………………………………………………………………………..19
Customer BGP Peering……………………………………………………………………………………………..19
Static Route Redistribution……………………………………………………………………………………….19
2.2.5 Transit and Peering Overview ……………………………………………………………………………….20
Transit Connectivity…………………………………………………………………………………………………20
Peering 20
2.3 Synchronous Optical Network (SONET) ………………………………………………………………..21
2.4 Digital Subscriber Line (DSL)……………………………………………………………………………….22
2.5 Point-to-point protocol (PPP)……………………………………………………………………………..23
2.6 Jordan ISP Internet Application…………………………………………………………………………..24
2.6.1 Electronic mail Service ……………………………………………………………………………………..24
2.6.2 Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) ……………………………………………………………………25
6
2.6.3 File Transfer ……………………………………………………………………………………………..27
2.6.4 Voice over IP …………………………………………………………………………………………….28
2.7 Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan ……………………………………………………………………………30
2.7.1 Jordan administrative divisions and internet ………………………………………………….31
2.8 OPNET ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………33
2.8.1 Introduction to OPNET……………………………………………………………………………………..33
2.8.2 Creating a new project ……………………………………………………………………………….34
2.8.3 Creating Network Topology…………………………………………………………………………36
2.8.4 BGP Configuration in OPNET………………………………………………………………………..39
Chapter 3 Network Design and Analysis…………………………………………………………………… 50
3.1 Introduction …………………………………………………………………………………………………………50
3.2 ISP Components ……………………………………………………………………………………………………50
3.2.1 Router CISCO7204:…………………………………………………………………………………………..50
3.2.2 Router CISCO12008………………………………………………………………………………………….52
3.2.4 Ethernet server……………………………………………………………………………………………….53
3.2.5 DSLAM…………………………………………………………………………………………………………..54
3.2.7 Workstation……………………………………………………………………………………………………54
3.2.8 LAN54
3.2.9 Internet……………………………………………………………………………………………………55
3.2.10 Links………………………………………………………………………………………………………..55
3.3 Network Design ……………………………………………………………………………………………….56
3.4 Topologies and Scenarios…………………………………………………………………………………..75
3.5 Simulation ………………………………………………………………………………………………………78
3.6 Results analysis and discussion …………………………………………………………………………..79
3.6.1 BGP……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….79
3.6.2 Email …………………………………………………………………………………………………………….82
3.6.3 Ethernet Delay………………………………………………………………………………………………..85
32T 3.6.4 FTP32T……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….85
3.6.5 HTTP ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………..88
3.6.6 TCP 90
3.6.7 RIP 91
32T 3.6.8 Voice32T ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………94
3.6.9 Objects analysis…………………………………………………………………………………………97
3.6.10 Routing Tables…………………………………………………………………………………………105
Chapter 4 Conclusion and Future Work………………………………………………………………….. 105
4.1 Conclusion………………………………………………………………………………………………………….105
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4.2 Limitation and Recommendations……………………………………………………………………..107
4.3 Future Work ………………………………………………………………………………………………….107
Bibliography…………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 108
Appendix A: …………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 109
Appendix B:……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 109
List of Figures
Figure 1Network Core…………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 16
Figure 2: Aggregation Layer …………………………………………………………………………………………………… 17
Figure 3: Network Edge…………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 18
Figure 4: ADSL network…………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 23
Figure 5: HTTP operation. ……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 26
Figure 6: FTP model ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 28
Figure 7: Jordan……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 31
Figure 8: provinces of Jordan…………………………………………………………………………………………………. 33
Figure 9: new project ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 34
Figure 10: choosing map……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 35
Figure 11: basic topologies ……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 37
Figure 12: (a) Rapid Configuration tool for creating a star topology. (b) Network with star topology
created with this tool……………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 38
Figure 13: network topology to implement BGP ………………………………………………………………………. 39
Figure 14: application configuration……………………………………………………………………………………….. 40
Figure 15: Profile configuration ……………………………………………………………………………………………… 40
Figure 16: workstation attributes …………………………………………………………………………………………… 41
The attributes of the server should be edited as represented in Figure 17 (note that the values are
added to the Applications->Application: Supported Services row)………………………………………………41
Figure 18: http server’s attributes ………………………………………………………………………………………….. 42
Figure 19: an autonomous systems ………………………………………………………………………………………… 43
Figure 20: configure /run DES………………………………………………………………………………………………… 44
Figure 21: Configure loopback interface………………………………………………………………………………….. 45
Figure 22: set ASN and configure ip addresses…………………………………………………………………………. 46
Figure 23: redistribute routes ………………………………………………………………………………………………… 47
Figure 24: neighbour relationship…………………………………………………………………………………………… 48
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Figure 25: neighbour properties …………………………………………………………………………………………….. 48
Figure 26: RIP parameters……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 49
Figure 27: creating subnet …………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 56
Figure 28: Location of each subnet…………………………………………………………………………………………. 57
Figure 29: Subnet of North Centre………………………………………………………………………………………….. 57
Figure 30: LAN inside subnet …………………………………………………………………………………………………. 58
Figure 31: XDSL centre ………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 59
Figure 32: DSLAM…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 60
Figure 33: ADSL site ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 61
Figure 34: XDSL modem ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 61
Figure 35: Access router ……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 62
Figure 36: Core Router………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 63
Figure 37: Ethernet server …………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 63
Figure 38: JISP ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 64
Figure 39: North centre…………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 65
Figure 40: Madaba ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 65
Figure 41: ADSL central office………………………………………………………………………………………………… 66
Figure 42: application definition…………………………………………………………………………………………….. 67
Figure 43: profile definition configuration……………………………………………………………………………….. 68
Figure 44: LAN’s applications…………………………………………………………………………………………………. 69
Figure 45: Workstation’s applications …………………………………………………………………………………….. 70
Figure 46: HTTP server’s supported services ……………………………………………………………………………. 71
Figure 47: adding loopback interface ……………………………………………………………………………………… 72
Figure 48: enabling BGP………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 73
Figure 49: the neighbours of middle centre’s core router …………………………………………………………. 74
Figure 50: RIP redistribution ………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 75
Figure 51: Topology 1……………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 76
Figure 52: Topology 2……………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 77
Figure 53: BGP network convergence activity ………………………………………………………………………….. 79
Figure 54: BGP network convergence duration………………………………………………………………………… 80
Figure 55: BGP Traffic received………………………………………………………………………………………………. 81
Figure 56: BGP Traffic sent…………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 81
Figure 57: Email Download response time ………………………………………………………………………………. 82
Figure 58: Email upload response time …………………………………………………………………………………… 83
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Figure 59: Email traffic received …………………………………………………………………………………………….. 83
Figure 60: Email traffic sent …………………………………………………………………………………………………… 84
Figure 61: Ethernet delay………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 85
Figure 62: FTP download response time………………………………………………………………………………….. 85
Figure 63: FTP upload response time………………………………………………………………………………………. 86
Figure 64: FTP traffic received ……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 86
Figure 65: FTP traffic sent ……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 87
Figure 66: HTTP object response time …………………………………………………………………………………….. 88
Figure 67: HTTP page response time ………………………………………………………………………………………. 88
Figure 68: HTTP traffic received……………………………………………………………………………………………… 89
Figure 69: HTTP traffic sent……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 90
Figure 70: TCP delay……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 90
Figure 71: TCP segment delay………………………………………………………………………………………………… 91
Figure 72: RIP Network convergence………………………………………………………………………………………. 92
Figure 73: RIP Network activity………………………………………………………………………………………………. 92
Figure 74: RIP traffic received………………………………………………………………………………………………… 93
Figure 75: RIP traffic sent………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 93
Figure 76: voice jitter ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 94
Figure 77: voice end to end delay packet ………………………………………………………………………………… 95
Figure 78: voice packet delay variation …………………………………………………………………………………… 95
Figure 79: Voice traffic received …………………………………………………………………………………………….. 96
Figure 80: Voice traffic sent …………………………………………………………………………………………………… 96
List of Tables
Table 1: ISP tires…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 21
Table 2: Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (SDH) ………………………………………………………………………….. 21
Table 3: IP telephony has many advantages versus standard telephone………………………………………29
Table 4: Provinces’ population and internet users ……………………………………………………………………. 32
Table 5: Routers details ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 43
Table 6: Router CISCO7204……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 51
Table 7: Router CISCO12008………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 52
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Table 8: Ethernet switch ……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 52
Table 9: Ethernet server………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 53
Table 10: Workstation…………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 54
Table 11: 100BaseT_LAN……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 55
Table 12: Links……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 55
Table 13: Traffic background of the applications ……………………………………………………………………… 66
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Chapter 1: Introduction
1.1 Introduction to nationwide ISP
Nationwide ISP is an organisation that provides internet services to a certain country.
Nationwide ISP is an important component in any country, and plays a key role in
developing different sectors, so the past thirty years have seen increasing developing the
infrastructure of ISP’s networks.
Nowadays, ISP offer not only web browsing, but also VOIP, IPTV, video conferencing, etc.
This brings several advantages to the end users. They can watch high quality videos at any
time of the day. They also can replace their costly, fixed telephony by cheaper VoIP
telephony service. In fact, in most of the major parts of the world, the competitive market
between operators of ISP helps to restructure the ISP services with price cut and promotions
led to great price declines. Combining video, voice and data services has many advantages.
However, building ISP with these features requires a lot of considerations.
In this project, a nationwide ISP will be designed to apply in Jordan. It provides an
important opportunity to understand the infrastructure of ISP’s wired networks. Wired
networks will be built for this project to use optical fibre, ethernet physical networks, and IP
based protocols to support ISP services. In order to set up an efficient and fast access to the
internet, designing the network topology and addressing the application performance are
very important. In this project, the concentration is on the topology and the performance of
the applications which will be implemented. The project is designed, built, simulated and
optimised by using OPNET modeller. OPNET is a famous platform for simulation, modelling
and analysis of communication networks.
Jordan consists of twelve governorates. It is supposed that the ISP will be built using optical
fibre links between the governorates centres. The internetworks in each governorate will be
connected to internet by leased line (optical lines or ethernet line) for companies and ADSL
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for residents. Various scenarios will be built to study the ISP infrastructure, network
performance applications.
1.2 Project Aims
The aims of this project are to:
• Build nationwide ISP network using OPNET with high availability and efficient
applications performance.
• Discuss in details the most popular services offered by ISP their requirement.
• Simulate the ISP network to produce graphical results.
• Test, analyse and compare the generated results under different scenarios.
• Adjust the network configurations according to certain specifications.
1.3 Project Outline
The work in this project is structured as follows:
• Chapter1 presents introductory information about the project. Today, ISP operators
developing their networks to offer telecommunications services to the customers as
many as possible. This chapter gives general idea about the project, its aims and the
project outline.
• Chapter2 explains ISP network architecture in details with overview of the
protocols are used and the services that can be offered by it. In additions, the
requirements of these services are explained. Moreover, it gives an overview
about internet customers in Jordan according to geographical areas. Finally,
OPNET platform is explained and how it can build and simulate networks.
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• Chapter3 explains the project network design including: the components of the
project, the network topologies, scenarios and simulation approach. Finally, it
will analyse, discus and compare the results.
• Chapter4 gives the conclusion depend on the analyses results achieved during
this project. Furthermore, it discusses the future work which can be developed
depend on the conclusions which will be presented.
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Chapter 2: Background Research
2.1 Introduction
This chapter briefly explains the ISP infrastructure and describes how its network operates.
The types of network addressing methods are then labelled. Then, the methods of
connecting ISPs and the relations between them are described. After that, SONET which is
one of the most popular WAN technologies and ADSL which is one of remote access
technologies are explained. Also, ISP services and servers are demonstrated. Finally, it
explains all what are needed in OPNET are introduced including: creating projects, creating
topology, and configuration of BGP are described in details.
2.2 ISP Network Architecture
This part details the general network architecture for broad plurality of ISP networks. The
primary network design is divided into set of essential elements (Zhang & Barrell):
• Interior Gateway protocol layout
• Network Layout
• Network addressing methodology
• Customer connectivity
• Transit and peering connections
2.2.1 Interior Gateway Protocol
The most popular IGPs used in ISP networks are OSPF and IS-IS. IGP protocols can be set up
in multi-area or single-area environment. IGP is used in ISP network to support the
infrastructure of BGP. It provides reachability for next hop resolution for BGP learned
prefixes and BGP peering session. The IGP should compass only the ISP network’s routers,
not customer edge routers, regardless those routers are managed by the ISP or not (Kumar
& Kumar, 2014).
15
2.2.2 Network Layout
There are several basics should be achieved in order to get stable and scalable network
(Zhang & Barrell):
• Hierarchy—it is the most important technique of supporting a network’s scalability.
Hierarchy diffuses the network’s complexity and cut down the concentration-of-scaling
issue.
• Modularity—it rises the network’s extensibility, predictability, and better manage of
traffic flow. It improves the troubleshooting network events as well.
• Redundancy—it decreases the link’s impaction and device failure. It is important for a
fault-tolerant network.
• Simplicity—network systems are already complex so Simplicity in network design is
necessary to reduce mistakes. In ISP networks, the huge amount of routing information
increases the load on the routers which increase the possibility of encountering problems.
The hierarchy is divided into three main components (Zhang & Barrell):
• The network core layer.
• The aggregation layer.
• The network edge layer.
The Core Layer
It is the upper layer of the hierarchy. The core layer, Figure 1, is responsible for switching
packets at line rate. The core layer consists of a few routers; usually less than 20, they are all
connected in a partial mesh or full mesh. The network core provides connectivity for the
aggregation layer.
The core routers terminate two types of links: core links which is connected to the others
core routers and aggregation uplinks which is connected to the aggregation routers to
provide connectivity (Zhang & Barrell).
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Figure 1: Network Core
The Aggregation Layer
The aggregation layer, Figure 2, reduces the complication of the core routers, whereas it
distributes the circuit aggregation and decrease the BGP peering sessions terminating on
the core layer. In the small networks, the aggregation layer is often eliminated.
An aggregation router terminates two types of links: uplinks which are connected to core
layer and downlinks which are connected to the edge layer. In order to provide uplink
redundancy, usually, there are two uplinks from every aggregation router to different two
core routers. Moreover, the aggregation router is configured as a route reflector for the two
core routers.
The aggregation layer decrease the density required for core routers’ port and increases the
network extensibility. The routers in this layer are not directly connected, this
The aggregation routers have downlinks to the edge routers. The aggregation layer gets its
name from providing aggregation to the edge routers. The aggregation layer reduces the
core routers’ port density requirements and increases the network’s extensibility. The
17
aggregation routers are not connected directly to others aggregation routers to cut the
predictability of traffic flow and reduces the performance of capacity planning.
Two peer group are on the aggregation routers. The first one is the iBGP to the upstream
core routers. The second is the iBGP to the edge routers. This technique helps the network
to be extended with minimal potential (Zhang & Barrell).
Figure 2: Aggregation Layer
The Network Edge Layer
The network edge layer, figure 3, connects to customer aggregation, transit, and peering
connections. The edge router has uplinks to two aggregations Layer for redundancy for
redundancy. The network policies and services are applied at the edge routers. The traffic
rates on the aggregation and core routers higher than the edge routers. This enhances
scalability because the processing traffic load is shared across a greater number of devices.
According to BGP architecture, the edge router is route reflector client of the aggregation
router. The edge router also terminates eBGP peering sessions with customers. Several BGP
actions are applied on the edge routers such as route damping, route aggregation, resetting
the next hop, zeroing BGP Multi-Exit Discriminators, Route information filtering and Policy
application (Zhang & Barrell).
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Figure 3: Network Edge
2.2.3 Network Addressing Methodology
Infrastructure addressing of ISP are two types of addressing loopback addresses and link
addresses. These are discussed in the next sections. You’ll then learn more about customer
addressing.
Loopback Addressing
It is independent of any physical interface whereas, only the router is the only device in the subnet,
permitting a /32 to be used for optimal address. The loopback address that is not used for the
RP Any-cast should be used as the BGP router ID. This prevents the probability of BGP
infrastructure flop from iterate BGP router IDs present in the network (Creating and
Configuring Loopback Interfaces, 2015).
Link Addressing
The backbone connection model is a point-to-point connection, only two devices in a
subnet. The /31 subnet without a network or broadcast address capitalize address efficiency
when configuring link addressing (Heap & Maynes).
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Customer Addressing
The typical model to manage customer prefixes is to transmit them in BGP and not the IGP.
The result is that there is no value to be had by inside aggregating or allocating address
space on area basis. There is also the additional difficulty that customer often multi-home or
occasionally move and need to be rehomed. Maintaining a strict area addressing structure
can become an administrative problem that is not supported by technical benefits (Heap &
Maynes).
2.2.4 Customer connectivity
ISPs use two general techniques to deal with prefix information from customer connections.
These techniques are BGP peering with the customer and static route implemented on the
edge router, then redistributing the prefix information into BGP.
Customer BGP Peering
Multi-homed Customers or customers who need the capability to dynamically advertise
prefixes use BGP peering. Multi-homed customer to different ISPs should have a unique
public autonomous system number. But, if the customer is multi-homed to one ISP or is not
multi-homed and needs the ability to dynamically advertise prefixes, two techniques are
used without unique public autonomous system (Smith, 2004). These techniques are:
• Generic Customer ASN: The ISP gets single ASN from an assigning authority
for it and its customers.
• Private ASN: to use an ASN in the range 64512 to 65535 which are reserved
for private use. These ASNs is used locally, so the ISP should remove the
private ASN before sending information of the public internet.
Static Route Redistribution
This method applied on the ISP edge router to provide customer connectivity and prevent
overhead for BGP peering sessions. A static route to the ISP should be implemented on
customer router. Then, it redistributed into BGP on the ISP edge router. When route is
inserted into BGP over redistribution, the origin is set to incomplete. ISP usually
redistributes the routes over a route map to manually set the origin to IGP and carry out any
20
BGP attribute manipulation. Using route maps to filter redistribution may decrease
configuration errors) Zhang  وBarrell(.
2.2.5 Transit and Peering Overview
This part takes about upstream ISP connectivity the Internet. There are three basic types of
upstream connectivity:
• Transit.
• Peering (public and private)
• ISP tiers and peering.
The upstream connectivity subject is related to political aspects of the ISP business, this will
be explained in the next sections (Smith, 2004).
Transit Connectivity
It means that The ISP buy full connectivity to the internet from another ISP. It is popular to
small and medium ISP. The customers buy transit services from an ISP which means that the
customers transit their network to reach a destination on the internet using upstream ISP.
Peering
When any two ISPs have peering between them, it means that they can reach each other
and their customers through that connection. The term peering refers to both public and
private peering. Peering in a general sense between two ISPs means that reachability to that
ISP and its direct customers is provided over that connection. If ISP1 and ISP2 initiate a
peering connection, they can reach each other but not ISP3 if it is not a customer of either
ISP1 or ISP2. Essentially, peering involves the exchange of partial routes between the two
peering ISPs. The cost of peering is typically less than full transit service, because both ISPs
peering expect to offload the traffic passing between their customers from their transit
links. In general, there are three ISP tires, as shown in table 2.1. The tire 1 providers are in 8
United States locations which are San Jose, D.C., Washington Dallas, Los Angeles, New York
City, Atlanta, Chicago and San Jose (Zhang & Barrell).
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Table 1: ISP tires

ISP tiresNationwide/ RegionalPeering/Transit
Tire 1Nationwidepeering
Tire 2NationwidePeering& transit
Tire 3Regional/localtransit

2.3 Synchronous Optical Network (SONET)
SONET is a standardised protocol for very high speed synchronous transferring of data
through optical fibre cables using Laser or LED. This technology is widely used IN the ISP’s
internal networks. It is also used in private networks to link distant locations in a WAN or
MAN. SONET uses point-to-point at data link and network layers to transmit packets
(Forouzan, 2012).
Packet over SONET (POS) is estimated to be popular because it offers high speed data
transmission, low error rates and low latency. It also offers higher speed than ones used by
the European E system and the North American Digital Hierarchy. SONET multiplex and demultiplex of individual signals more efficient. But, isolating one channel using the European
E system and North American Digital Hierarchy with plesiochronous systems is more
complex. Though separating a 64 kbps channel from a DS1 circuit is simple, separating a 64
kbps channel from a DS3 trunk needs de-multiplexing to the DS1 level first (Oppenheimer,
2012).
Table 2: Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (SDH) (Forouzan, 2012).

STS RateOC levelSpeed
STS-1OC-151.84 Mbps
STS-3OC-3155.52Mbps

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STS-12OC-12622.08Mbps
STS-24OC-241.244Gbps
STS-48OC-482.488Gbps
STS-96OC-964.976Gbps
STS-192OC-1929.952Gbps
STS-768OC-76839.808Gbps

The SONET requirement states a four-layer protocol stack. The four layers have the
following roles (Forouzan, 2012):
• Photonic layer: determines the physical properties of the optical equipment.
• Section layer: determines the frame layout and the change of frames to optical
signals.
• Line layer: determines multiplexing and synchronization onto SONET frames.
• Path layer: determines end to end transport.
2.4 Digital Subscriber Line (DSL)
DSL technology is developed to provide high speed internet access. It is a group of
technologies which are ADSL, HDSL, SDSL and VDSL. XDSL usually refers to this sit, the X can
be substituted by A, H, S, or V. Only ADSL will be discussed because it will be implemented in
this project. ADSL offers more advanced data rate in the download than in the upload. It
specifically divides the existing bandwidth of the local loop unequally to the houses
residents’ customer. ADSL is not appropriate for business clients because they require a high
bidirectional bandwidth.
The bandwidth that can be handled by telephone lines twisted cable reaches up to 1.1 MHz.
But, the filter fixed in telephone company office reduces the bandwidth to 4 KHz for voice
communication. For ADSL, filter is taken away to get 1.1 MHz to support both data and
23
voice. The bandwidth is divided into downstream channel, upstream channel and voice
channel, as shown in figure 4.
Subscriber can use voice channel and data channel at the same time. The rate of upstream
reaches 1.44 Mbps. But, the data rate usually below 500 kbps because of the noise in the
channel. The rate of downstream reaches 13.4 Mbps. But, the downstream rate usually
smaller than 8 Mbps because of the noise in the channel. So ISP services such as, HTTP or
Email is provided by the telephone networks. At the telephone company site, a digital
subscriber line access multiplexer (DSLAM) is used instead of ADSL modem. DSLAM put the
data in packets to be sent through the Internet (Forouzan, 2012).
Figure 4: ADSL network.
2.5 Point-to-point protocol (PPP)
PPP was developed by the internet engineering task force (IETF) as a standard data link layer
protocol for transferring different network layer protocols through serial. It is for connecting
users to a central office. It is used in various WAN technologies such as analog lines, digital
leased lines, ISDN, and other. It offers the services below (Oppenheimer, 2012):
• Error detection.
• Link configuration.
• Network layer protocol multiplexing.
• Authentication.
• Header compression.
• Error detection.
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• Link-quality testing.
• Link-option negotiation.
Point-to-point protocol has four operative layers:
• The physical layer is based on different global specifications for serial
communication, as well as EIA/TIA-232-C, EIA/TIA-422, V.35, and V.24.
• The encapsulation of network layer datagrams is based on the standard (HDLC)
protocol.
• The Link Control Protocol (LCP) is designed for establishing, configuring,
authenticating, and testing a data-link connection.
• A family of Network Control Protocols (NCPs) is designed for establishing and
configuring different network layer protocols, like IP, IPX, AppleTalk, and DECnet.
2.6 Jordan ISP Internet Application
2.6.1 Electronic mail Service
Email application is used heavily through internet. Nowadays, emails can contains voice,
images, data and videos. Email application is supported by Simple Mail Transfer Protocol
(SMTP). It is the typical protocol for mail transfer through hosts. SMTP is not concern about
the content or the format of the message with two exceptions as follows (Stallings, 2007):
• It standardised the message character set as 7-bit ASCII.
• It adds log information to the beginning of the sent message that mentions the route
the message chooses.
Electronic mail operations begin when mail is generated by a user agent program in reaction
to user input. The generated message contains a header which consists of the email
receivers’ addresses and additional information, and a body which contains the message.
These messages are then lined up in some style and delivered as input to an SMTP sender
program that is server’s program on the PC.
Even though the mechanism of the outgoing mail queue will change based on the machine’s
OS, every message in the queue practically consists of two parts:
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• The message text: it is consists of The RFC 822 header and the body of the message.
• A table of mail destinations.
The user agent derived the list of mail destinations from 822 message headers. Then the
user agent specifies the actual mail box name of the destination. The SMTP sender sends
the messages to the destination host through SMTP transactions over TCP connections.
Once the SMTP sender ends delivery of a specific message to a specific host, it removes the
destination from messages destination list. The message is removed from the queue, after
all destinations of it are processed. The SMTP sender optimises some queue process. For
example, it sends multiple messages in one TCP connection, if the messages are prepared to
send to the same PC. The SMTP deals with many errors such as, unreachable destination,
failure of TCP connections, or out of operations.
The SMTP receiver receives every arriving message then places it in the right user mailbox.
The SMTP receiver should be capable to validate local mail destinations, and transact with
faults, such as shortage of storage spaces and sending errors.
2.6.2 Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP)
HTTP considers as one the most important protocols of the internet. It is for transferring
data efficiently. This data can be plaintext, hypertext, audio, images, etc. typically. HTTP is
used for internet browsing between a web browser such as internet explorer, fire fox and
google chrome and a web server. HTTP is considered a reliable protocol because it uses
TCP. Every transaction is processed individually so it considers a stateless protocol. Usual
implementation generates new connection between client and server for every
transmission process and then, closes the connection immediately after the transmission is
finished, even if the condition does not order this one-to-one relationship between
transmission and connection periods (Stallings, 2007).
The stateless properties of HTTP is suitable to its application. Usually, the session of a client
with a Web browser includes processing a series of internet pages. The locations those Web
26
pages may be set of different distributed servers. Moreover, HTTP has flexible formats
which can handle. When a client request a web page from server, a set of format it can be
listed, and the server chooses the most suitable one (Stallings, 2007).
Figure 5: HTTP operation (Stallings, 2007).
Figure 5 shows three instances of HTTP operation. First one, the user agent such as a web
browser sets a straight connection with the server where a resource resides. For this issue,
opened TCP connection is established between the client and the server. Then, HTTP
request is issued by client. The request is received by the server then, it returns an HTTP
response. Finally, the TCP connection is closed.
The second one, there are several intermediate systems with TCP connections between the
user agent and the server. Those intermediate systems work as relay, where they relay
every request or response between the clients to the server. Three types of middle system
are definite in the HTTP requirement: proxy, gateway and tunnel. For more information
about those specifications (Stallings, 2007).
The last one represents a model of a cache feature in http. A cache is a feature that save
earlier requests and responses in order to process next requests. If a new request is similar
to a saved request, then the cache provides the saved response instead of retrieving the
page (resource) specified in the uniform resource locater (URL). The cache feature can be on
27
client side, server side or even intermediate system but not a tunnel. In the last example, B
is cashed a request or response transaction, thus any new request from the client do not
need to transfer the whole chain to the server, but is handled by B. However, not all
connections between a client and a server can be cached because a client or server can
cache a specific transaction for a limit time (Stallings, 2007).
2.6.3 File Transfer
One of the most essential tasks of networks is transferring files. However, most of files
which are transferred through the internet have a great volume. This section takes about
The File Transfer Protocol (FTP) which is the typical protocol to transfer files through
internet (Forouzan, 2012).
File Transfer Protocol (FTP) is the standard TCP/IP for exchanging files between systems and
clients. Though file transferring seems simple, some challenges appear during file
transferring. For example, the transmitter and the receiver use different file systems, they
use different techniques to symbolize text and data, or they use different directory
structures. FTP solved all the previous challenges (Forouzan, 2012).
FTP creates two connections between sender and receiver. One of the connections is to
transfer data, the other for commands and responses. Separating data transfer and
commands, FTP become more efficient. A simple communication rules are used by the
control connection. Wc requires to transmit one command line or one response line at
once. On the other hand, the data connection requires complicated rules because it needs
several data type transported. FTP employ two ports: 21 for control connection and 20 for
data connection. Its model is represented in figure 6, three components in the client side
which are user interface, client control process, and the client data transfer process. In the
other side, the server side (Riverbed, 2015)there are two segments: the server control
process and the server data transfer process. The control connection is established between
the control processes, while the data connection is established between the data transfer
processes (Forouzan, 2012).
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Figure 6: FTP model
The control connection stills active in the complete communicating FTP session. The data
connection is started and terminated for every transmitted file. It opens every time
commands that include transmitting files are used, and it terminates once the file is
transmitted. In other words, when a client establishes an FTP session, the control
connection opens. The data connection able to be opened and closed many times if
numerous files are transmitted, while the control connection is opened.
2.6.4 Voice over IP
The Internet offers various features to improve communication between users. The Internet
technologies reduce costs, increase efficiency, and enhance business relationship. The rapid
change in the industry increases the demand of IP telephony, so Businesses should learn
about IP telephony and its features (Wisniewski, 2001).
Web browsing and email services need to send and receive a small size of packets over
internet. But, voices and videos need a large size of packets. Internet telephony compacts
voice into IP packets, then transfer it over the internet. Every packet’s size is more than
1500 bytes (Wisniewski, 2001).
29
Generally, voice is compressed to 8 kbps through applying standard ways. The IP overhead
raises the data rate to 14.8 kbps. The bandwidth can be reduced to approximately 6 kbps by
using silence compression technology only when a user is taking. The bandwidth for voice is
automatically freed up during periods of silence.
IP telephony gateways are used to convert Voice signal conversion happens. One of its sides
is connected to the PSTN or PBX and the other one is connected to an IP router on the other
side. IP telephony gateways are also important for collecting information about user and
phone number of destination. The gateway collects user information and a destination
phone number. Gateway is situated in several parts of the world using gatekeepers to route
the several gateways.
A gatekeeper contains a subscriber database about the routing related information for calls.
The main job of a gatekeeper is to validate the user information that is taken at the gateway
and supply the IP the outside gateway depending on the purpose phone number.
Each of the IP packets goes through LANs and telephone wires individually. Then, they are
directed by several routers. Each router forwards the packets on their journey until they
reach to the proper destination. When the packets are received to the destination, they are
reorganised and the original message is recovered.
There are five main forms of IP telephony:
• PC to PC.
• PC to Phone.
• Phone to Phone.
• Premises to Premises.
• Premises to Network.
IP telephony has many advantages over standard telephone. Comparison between the both
technologies is in Table 3.
Table 3: IP telephony has many advantages versus standard telephone (Wisniewski, 2001).
30

Internet TelephonyStandard Telephone
Uses a PC and internet connection to be able
to start and receive phone calls
Uses the local network and a long distance
network.
Voice is digitally encoded, compressed,
broken into packets and sent out across the
internet.
Standard voice signal exchange between
carriers of voice networks.
Call path include gateways and routers.Call path is the circuit switched PSTN
network.
Long distance cost saving economical
international voice or fax calls.
Higher per minutes rates, access fees, etc.
Improved bandwidth utilizationLimited bandwidth utilisation; dedicated
circuits
Reduce requirement and operational
expense based on voice and data integration
Dual operational expense due to non
integrated voice and data.
Limited equipment standards and lake of
interoperability.
Proven standards of communications,
proven quality.

2.7 Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan
Jordan is one of Arab Muslim countries, which is situated in the north of the Arabian
Peninsula and in West Asia. It is surrounded by Syria to the north, Iraq to the east, Saudi
Arabia to the south and south-east, and Palestine (the West Bank) to the west. Jordan is
named to the Jordan River, which passes on its western border, and Amman is capital
(goverment, 2015).
According to the survey of 2011, the Jordan’s population are six million and 249 thousand
people. Population density lives in the middle and north of the country. The Jordan area is
about 92.300 square kilometres, where the land covers 91.971 square kilometres of the
country and the water covers 329 square kilometres. The working days are Sunday to
Thursday from 8:30 to 15:30. Most of government departments, banks and companies are
closed every Friday and every Saturday (goverment, 2015).
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Figure 7: Jordan
2.7.1 Jordan administrative divisions and internet
Jordan mainly is divided into three consists of twelve provinces; Figure 7 shows the
provinces of Jordan (Jordan, 2015); which are:
1. Irbid.
2. Ajloun.
3. Jerash.
4. Mafraq.
5. Balqa.
6. Amman.
7. Zarqa.
8. Madaba.
9. Karak.
10. Tafilah.
11. Maan.
12. Aqaba.
Geographically, the provinces of Jordan are situated in one of three regions: the North,
Central and the south Region. Table 4 represents information about population, number of
internet users and number of internet users after scaling (the Global Information
32
Technology Report (GITR)- (, 2013). Scaling is done to be able to apply the JISP project using
OPNET. Very Large number of users will slow down the simulation program. Moreover, it
will need a very long time to complete the simulation.
Table 4: Provinces’ population and internet users

ProvincesNumber of
population
Percent of using
internet%
Number of internet
users
Scale by
(
0.0002)
Irbid1.137 .00060.5%687885138
Ajloun146.90060.5%8887518
Jerash191.70060.5%11597923
Mafraq300.30060.5%18168236
Balqa428.00055.1%23582847
Amman2.473.00055.1%1362623273
Zarqa951.80055.1%52444247
Madaba159.70055.1%8799518
karak249.10058.7%14622229
Tafilah89.40058.7%5247811
Maan12137258.7%7125614
Aqaba139.20058.7%8171116

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Figure 8: provinces of Jordan
2.8 OPNET
2.8.1 Introduction to OPNET
Simulation the performance for several systems is an essential tool for any IT (information
technology) professional. Today, using simulation to evaluate the performance of any
system is very important before investment in expensive hardware. However, building a
simulation model is not a fiddling task. It needs deep understanding of simulation,
34
modelling, system properties, and mathematical background ( S. Sethi & Y. Hnatyshin,
2012).
OPNET modeller is the most popular product for network simulation. It is used in
educational and industrial sectors. Several universities use OPNET in teaching
communication and computer networks, as well as, companies for modelling, study,
analysis, and performance predication of several network systems. Now days, every
company needs professionals who can evaluate the performance of its network in order to
identify and fix the network problems. OPNET can do that before the problems arise ( S.
Sethi & Y. Hnatyshin, 2012).
This chapter will describe OPNET Modeller software and how to build and simulate projects
using it.
2.8.2 Creating a new project
Startup Wizard is one of the most helpful OPNET’s features. In order to create a new project
using this feature ( S. Sethi & Y. Hnatyshin, 2012):
• Firstly, select File > New, From the OPNET’s main window, next choose Project from the
pull-down list, then click OK.
• Type the Project Name and Scenario Name, as shown in Figure 9.
• Check the checkbox Use Startup Wizard. Then, Click OK.
Figure 9: new project
Now the Startup Wizard’s main components are described. If the Startup Wizard is chosen,
next the Initial Topology Window will come.
35
• Select Create Empty Scenario from the Initial Topology Window. After that, click Next.
•From the Choose Network Scale Window, select World, Enterprise, Campus, Office,
Logical, or Choose from maps. Then click Next.
The windows that will display next based on the choice you did. Options World, Enterprise,
and Choose from maps permit display a geographical scale depend on a chosen map
through the Choose Map window, while choices Enterprise, Campus, and Office permit
stating the sizes of the simulated area via the Specify Size window.
• In the Choose Map window shown in Figure 10, choose an entry in the Border Map or
select in the middle of the available Map Info maps, and next click the >> button to transfer
the selected map into the selected area. When the geographical maps are chosen, then click
Next to go on to the next configuration option.
Figure 10: choosing map
• State X Span and Y Span from the Specify Size window of the network and then click Next.
When the size of the project space has been stated, the Startup Wizard will display the
windows of Select Technologies and Review.
• Select the model families from the Select Technologies window to be and then click Next.
A model family is a group of models that belong to a related group of technologies, For
instance, internet_toolbox, ethernet, MANET, Cisco, etc. When you select one or more
36
model families, the items belongs to those families will be portion of the defaulting model
family, that displays in the Object Palette. Nevertheless of your selection of technologies (or
even if you do not choose any technology at all), the whole group of objects related to
whole technologies, not only the default one, is always existing in the Object Palette.
• From the Review window, click Finish.
• During using the Startup Wizard, you can return back to the previous window at any time
by clicking the Back button. You may also click Quit to close the Startup Wizard and build a
default project.
When this process is completed, the Object Palette and Project Editor windows will display.
You can now select objects from the Object Palette and drag them in the project workplace
within the Project Editor, creating then configuring the network to be used in the project.
2.8.3 Creating Network Topology
Network topology refers to how the of network devices, the communication channels and
links organised within a specific physical space connected together. The literature usually
differentiates between physical and logical topologies of a network. Physical related to the
layout of the devices and the links connects between them, taking into account such
influences as the physical sites of single nodes and the real distances spanned by the
communication links. In contrast, logical topology offers an abstract illustration of the
communication routes between the network devices without concern to the real physical
sites and distances between different nodes in the network. Logical topology mainly deals
with protocol configuration of the network devices for the aim of creating channels for
transferring and receiving the data ( S. Sethi & Y. Hnatyshin, 2012).
This section explain the options existing in OPNET for building the physical or logical
topology of a simulated network. Basically, there are seven basic topologies as shown in
figure 11: fully-connected mesh, not fully connected mesh topology, bus topology, star
topology, ring topology, tree topology, and hybrid topology. Each network device has a
straight link to other devices in a fully connected mesh topology. Each network device has
straight links to some devices in a partially connected mesh, but not necessarily all the other
37
devices. Bus topology has a single primary link or bus with the nodes tapping into that bus
through drop lines. Star topology has a principal node connected to all the other nodes in
the topology/network. There are not straight links between non central nodes. Ring
topology has nodes ordered in the ring formula where every device is only linked to two
devices on either of its sides. In tree topology, any two devices are connected via a
particular route. Finally, hybrid topology has the nodes linked to one another using some
mixture of any of the previously mentioned topologies ( S. Sethi & Y. Hnatyshin, 2012).
Figure 11: basic topologies
One could differentiate between nodes with several links (or interfaces) and nodes with only
one link. Routers, gateways, switches, Hubs, and other similar network devices connects
other devices, so these devices have several links. End nodes such as PCs and servers are
commonly linked to other devices/nodes or networks through only one link, although
sometimes, the end nodes might be multi-homed (i.e., linked to more than one network)
and thus could have several links. For example, to improve reliability and resilience to link
failure, an enterprise can have several redundant links to connect their servers to the
network ( S. Sethi & Y. Hnatyshin, 2012).
38
Creating Ethernet LAN
Here is an example of building an Ethernet LAN by using a star topology with ten Ethernet
workstation linked to a switch ( S. Sethi & Y. Hnatyshin, 2012):
From the Project Editor, choose Topology > Rapid Configuration from the pull-down menu.
Select Star as your configuration topology and then click Next.
From the window that will appear, determine the values below:
Centre node model: ethernet16_switch
Periphery node model: ethernet_wkstn
Number: 10—this is the number of nodes. This value should not exceed 16 because the
switch which we choose has only 16 Ethernet port.
Link model: 10BaseT (for a data rate of 10 Mbps)
Centre X: 12 (you can choose any value)
Centre Y: 12 (you can choose any value)
Radius: 40 (you can choose any value)
Then, click OK.
Figure 12: (a) Rapid Configuration tool for building a star topology. (b) Network with star
topology built with this tool.
Figure 12 displays the Rapid Configuration sets and the produced star topology. If you do an
error and/or links the nodes in wrong link type or even connect more nodes to a device than
the number of ports existing at that device, then OPNET might or might not give any
warning about that error in the network topology.
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2.8.4 BGP Configuration in OPNET
This section shows the main configuration of BGP in OPNET. What is needed is to open a
new project, set the network scale as campus (select the default setting) (Zhou, 2015).
Adding routers:
Add 2 ethernet4_slip8_gtwy, an ethernet_wkstn, an ethernet_server, an Application
configuration and a Profile configuration node. Then, connect the devices together with
100BaseT Ethernet cables as shown in figure 13.
Figure 13: network topology to implement BGP
In this scenario HTTP protocol will be configured instead of traffic demands. First we
require setting up the HTTP application. Edit the attributes of the Application_Confi node as
presented in figure 14.
40
.
Figure 14: application configuration
Figure 14 represents the way that HTTP will be emulated in the simulator. After creation the
definition of the application, we require to set up a profile of how it is used.
Edit the attributes of the Profile_Config node as represented in figure 15.
Figure 15: Profile configuration
41
We currently have an application profile that we can apply to the network to generate
traffic. Firstly we require applying this application to the workstation, as in figure 15. It will
now make HTTP requests according to the application and profile configuration.
Figure 16: workstation attributes
After that the server should be configured to be able to service the requests from the
workstation.
The attributes of the server should be edited as represented in Figure 17 (note that the
values are added to the Applications->Application: Supported Services row).
42
Figure 17: http server’s attributes
The HTTP traffic should be checked if it is generated. Click right-click on anywhere in the
workspace except on nodes then select “Choose Individual DES Statistics”. Select “Page
Response Time” from the HTTP menu in the Global Statistics.
Run the simulation for 10 minutes and make sure that you have results.
Routing
The information stored in the routing tables of both of the routers are very important. In
order to find them, Select both routers and then go to Protocols->IP->Routing->Export
Routing Tables from the menu bar at the top of the application window. Note that every
router has a single entry from RIP.
Now, Duplicate the scenario and Name the new scenario “BGP_Basic”.
The routing protocol between the two routers will be changed to BGP in the current
scenario. This means that the devices logically should be associated with an autonomous
system. As shown in figure 19.
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Figure 18: an autonomous systems
There are multiple steps in the configuration of BGP. The first thing is to choose
autonomous system numbers and IP addresses for each of the routers in the network. I
summarise the information that I have chosen in the table below.
Table 5: Routers details

Router 1Router 2
Autonomous System
Number
3561
Loopback IF IP192.0.28.1192.0.30.1
IP of BGP Interface192.0.14.1192.0.14.2

The exchange of routing information between protocols should be permitted (for example
between RIP and BGP). In order to apply this, protocols should be forced to run throughout
the simulation. Open the configure/run simulation dialogue box and go to Inputs->Global
44
Attributes. Under simulation efficiency, make sure that both BGP Sim Efficiency Mode and
RIP Sim Efficiency Mode are disabled a shown in figure 20.
Figure 19: configure /run DES
The attributes of each of the routers should be edited and add the loopback interface. IP-
>IP Routing Parameters->Loopback Interfaces, add an interface, configure the IP address
and net mask and add RIP routing, as shown 21.
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Figure 20: Configure loopback interface
The IP address and subnet mask should be added to the interface(s) which will be running
BGP. IP->IP Routing Parameters->Interface Information, then choose the right interface. All
routing protocols should be disabled on that interface. The Autonomous System Number
also should be added as shown in figure 21.
46
Figure 21: set ASN and configure ip addresses
Next, BGP should be enabled on each router and the addressing scheme, that may be used,
should be configured. In this step routes learned via direct connection and via RIP should be
enabled to be redistributed (with a default metric of 0) with BGP. This is represented figure
22 for one of the routers.
47
Figure 22: redistribute routes
Next, configuration of all the neighbours to this BGP peer should be done. The first thing
that should be done is configure the loopback interface – this is vital to ensure that routing
information can be routed between different protocols. To do this set up the IP address and
AS of the loopback interface, specify that IPv4 is used and specify that it should be updated
from the Loopback interface. Then, configuration of all the peers that the router connects
to is needed. In order to do that set up the IP address and the AS of the peer connection and
declare that IPv4 is used. There is no requirement to state the update source when adding
neighbour information of each peer. Figures 23 and 24 represent the configuration of the
loopback interface as a neighbour first then the configuration of Router 2 as a neighbour
(same configuration must be completed on Router_2 as well).
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Figure 23: neighbour relationship
Figure 24: neighbour properties
49
The last thing that is needed is to configure the RIP protocol to accept the redistribution of
BGP routes into RIP. So from IP Routing Protocols->RIP Parameters->Process Parameters-
>IPv4->Process Parameters->Redistribution->Routing Protocols and then permit
redistribution with default settings into RIP from directly connected IFs and BGP, as shown
in figure 25.
Figure 25: RIP parameters
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Chapter 3 Network Design and Analysis
3.1 Introduction
After the brief details of ISP architecture explained in former chapters; it is the time to start
the ISP network design. One of the basic goals of this project is to study the performance of
the ISP infrastructures and their support for many applications under set of scenarios.
Furthermore, the leased Line and ADSL connectivity will be analysed and discussed under an
IP network using OPNET. As discussed earlier, OPNET is found to be one of the best
platforms which can help to merge a complete communication node with various access
models. OPNET offers a platform to build and test an analytic and practical video, voice and
Internet model. It can also offer the ability to merge the model with different environment.
A clarification to the network architecture, simulation strategy, modelled topologies,
examined parameters and type of used frequency and bandwidth are all illustrated in the
following sections. The details results of each simulation project are then shown in the next
chapter. Choosing appropriate topology is very important in designing any network. Star
topology has been chosen in the project where each subnet is connected directly to the ISP
Centre. Star topology has been chosen because of the following points:
• Easy to install and wire.
• Easy to connect or remove devices.
• Easy to discover faults.
• East to manage.
• Scalability.
3.2 ISP Components
Group of elements has been used to design this project. In this section the features of every
element has been explained briefly as the following:
3.2.1 Router CISCO7204:
This model is used as a core router. Table 6 represents some information about this model.
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Table 6: Router CISCO7204

DescriptionCS_7204_4s_a1_fe1_sl8_tr4_adv
ProductCISCO7204
Device ClassRouter
ConfigurationThis model represents a particular setting
of an IP based router gateway model.
General OperationIP packets arrives any of its IP interface are
routed to the correct output interface
depending on the destination IP address.
The Routing Information Protocol (RIP) or
Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) protocol
can be used to automatically and
dynamically build the routing tables and
choose routes in an appropriate
techniques (Riverbed, 2015).
The key model features1. An IP forwarding rate of 150,000
packets/sec.
2. The router model implements a “store
and forward” type of switching
methodology. A typical use of this device is
to route data between two ethernet LAN
segments connection via an IP network
(Riverbed, 2015).
Supported technologyATM, eth100T, SLIP and 4 Token Ring.

52
3.2.2 Router CISCO12008
This model is used as an access router for every province. Table 7 represents some
information about this model.
Table 7: Router CISCO12008

DescriptionCS_12008_8s_a5_fe8_ge1_sl9_34_upgrade_adv
ProductCISCO12008
Device ClassGigabit Switch Router
ConfigurationThis device was created using the device creator
utility.
Supported technologyATM, Ethernet and SLIP.

3.2.3 Ethernet switch
This model is used as switch for connecting servers to core routers. Table 8 represents some
information about this model.
Table 8: Ethernet switch

Descriptionethernet16_switch
General Node Functions:The ethernet16_switch node model
symbolises an ethernet switch that
supports up to 16 Ethernet
interface. The switch applies the
Spanning Tree algorithm in order to
make sure that there is not loop
problem. Switches communicate
with each other by sending Bridge
Protocol Data Units (BPDU’s).
Packets are received and processed
by the switch depend on the

53

existing configuration of the
spanning tree (Riverbed, 2015).
Protocols:Spanning Tree Bridge Protocol
(IEEE802.1D), Ethernet (IEEE 802.3)
Interconnections:16 ethernet connections at the specified
data rate (10, 100, 1000 Mbps)
Restrictions:The switch can only connect LAN’s of the
same type (ethernet to ethernet, FDDI to
FDDI, or Token Ring to Token Ring).

3.2.4 Ethernet server
This model states a server node with applications operate over TCP and UDP. This server
supports one Ethernet connection at 10 Mbps, 100 Mbps, or 1 Gbps. The Link’s data rate
controls the server speed. This node can work in both half duplex and full duplex. A static
amount of time is needed to route each packet, as determined by the “IP Forwarding Rate”
attribute of the node.
Table 9: Ethernet server

DescriptionEthernet_server
General Functionserver
Supported ProtocolsUDP, IP, Ethernet, RIP, TCP and OSPF
Port Interface1 Ethernet connection at 10 Mbps, 100

54

Mbps, or 1000 Mbps

3.2.5 DSLAM
DSLAM_fr1_ip32 is used for connecting DSL Modemes to access routers. This model
represents DSLAM with 32 DSL links and one frame relay uplink port.
3.2.6 DSL Modem:
xDSL_modem is used. This represents DSL network’s client side terminal device. It supports IP over
DSL.
3.2.7 Workstation
It represents workstation which supports application running over TCP and UDP. It also
supports one Ethernet connection. This machine needs a specific amount of time to route
every packet. The Selected module is shown in table 10.
Table 10: Workstation

Descriptionethernet_wkstn
Functionworkstation
Supported ProtocolsUDP, IP, Ethernet, Fast Ethernet, Gigabit
Ethernet, RIP, TCP, OSPF.
Port interfaceOne Ethernet connection at 10 Mbps, 100
Mbps. Or 1000 Mbps.

3.2.8 LAN
100BaseT_LAN model symbol fast Ethernet LAN in switch network. This LAN can accept any
number of clients and single server. The designer decides to direct the traffic to internal
server or external servers as well. The Selected module is shown in table 11.
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Table 11: 100BaseT_LAN

Description100BaseT_LAN
Supported applicationsFTP, Email, Database, HTTP, VOIP etc.
Switching speedDefault = 500,000packets/sec
Number of workstationsDefault = 10

The switching speed determines the time of services for every packet while going through
the switching module of this node. All packets are subjected to this delay and the incoming
and outgoing packets experience transmission delay. The delay of incoming and outgoing
packets is based on the link data rate modelled within the node, and higher layer delays, like
delays by IP and application layers, if applicable.
3.2.9 Internet
The ip32_cloud model symbols for an IP cloud. It has up to 32 serial line interfaces at a
specific data rate. IP packets reaching to the cloud’s interfaces are routed to the right
output interface depending on their destination IP address.
RIP and OSPF may be used to automatically and dynamically to build the cloud’s routing
tables. The IP cloud needs a specific amount of time to route every packet, as specified by
the “Packet Latency” attribute of the node. Packets are routed on a first come first serve
rule and may encounter queuing based on the transmission rates of the matching output
interfaces.
3.2.10 Links
Different types of links has been used to connect elements for this project. Table 12
represents those types and the data rate for each link.
Table 12: Links

Link typeData rate
PPP_SONET_OC12_int594.43 Mbps
PPP_SONET_OC3_int148.61 Mbps

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100BaseT100 Mbps
10BaseT10 Mbps

3.3 Network Design
Firstly, using the startup wizard, a new project and empty scenario is created with the name
Build nationwide ISP and Initial network, respectively. Jordan’s map is selected from the
world’s map. Then, twelve subnets are placed on the map of Jordan. Each subnet represents
one of Jordan’s provinces. The subnets are selected from the object palette as shown in
Figure 26. Those subnets are located in the geographical place for each province as shown in
figure 27.
Figure 26: creating subnet
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Figure 27: Location of each subnet
One logical subnet is placed inside each of Irbid subnet, Amman subnet, and Karak subnet.
The three logical subnets represent the ISP centres. There are three ISP’s centres: North
Centre in Irbid, Middle Centre in Amman, and South Centre in Karak, as shown in Figure 28.
Figure 28: Subnet of North Centre
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Local area networks LANs are added to represent the leased line customers. One LAN inside
each province. Amman needs two LANs because it represents large number of users. The
default number of clients in the LAN object is ten. But, it can be changed to any number of
users. The real number of internet users is scaled because it is difficult to represent large
number of users because the maximum number of events in OPNET academic edition is
limited, so the clients’ number of each LAN is scaled as explained in the previous chapter,
Table 4. The LAN model 100BaseT is selected as shown in figure29.
Figure 29: LAN inside subnet
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One DSL building centre is added inside each subnet. This centre will provide the internet to
Resident through ADSL lines. Figure 30 shows ADSL centre. Every ADSL centre contains DSLAM
which will be connected to DSL modems. Figure 31 shows DSLAM.
Figure 30: XDSL centre
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Figure 31: DSLAM
Three ADSL sites, for resident, are added in each subnet where every subnet contains XDSL
modem, switch and three PCs. ADSL site and XDSL modem are shown in figure32, figure33
respectively.
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Figure 32: ADSL site
Figure 33: XDSL modem
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An access router is placed in each city, where every access router will connect the
customers to the core router. Figure 34 shows the access router.
Figure 34: Access router
One core router, one switch and four servers are added inside all the ISP’s centre: the north
centre, the middle centre, and the south centre. The core router is connected to servers
through switch. Figure 35, figure36 and figure 37 show the selected models of each
component. The four servers for each centre are named HTTP, Email, VOIP and FTP.
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Figure 35: Core Router
Figure 36: Ethernet server
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It is the time to connect the wires between all the components of the ISP, they are
connected as follow:
• Core router to core router: PPP_SONET_OC3_int.
• Core router to access router: PPP_SONET_OC1_int.
• Core router to switch: 100BaseT.
• Core router to Internet: PPP_SONET_OC3_int.
• Switch to server: 100BaseT.
• Access router to LAN: 10BaseT.
• Access router to DSLAM: PPP_DS3.
• DSLAM to modem: PPP_DS3.
• Modem to switch: 10BaseT.
• Switch to PC: 10BaseT.
After the previous steps are applied, the network is built as shown in figures 37 to 40.
Figure 37: Jordan ISP
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Figure 38: North centre
Figure 39: Madaba
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Figure 40: ADSL central office
Next, the applications should be implemented. HTTP, VOIP, FTP and Email will be
implemented for the customers.
The project is designed to estimate the traffic between the components according to the
number of users in each province during peak time. This estimation would then be used to
add IP traffic flow in the network as background traffic. The background traffic is based on
applications and number of users. Table 13 shows a description of applications which are
implemented in the application definition. Also, figure 41 shows the applications which are
configured.
Table 13: Traffic background of the applications

ApplicationDescriptionsUsers of the application
HTTPHeavy browsingAll
VOIPIP TelephonyAll
FTPHigh LoadAll
EmailHigh LoadAll

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Figure 41: application definition
After the application definition is setting up, the profile configuration is configured. Four
rows are added in the in profile definition as shown in figure 42.
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Figure 42: profile definition configuration
Now, the profiles of all applications are configured, so they are ready to be used in order to
generate traffic. Then, all the LANs and workstations are configured to use the applications
that have been configured as shown in figure 43 and figure 44. All the LANs and
workstations will be able to use HTTP, FTP, VOIP and Email.
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Figure 43: LAN’s applications
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Figure 44: Workstation’s applications
Then, the servers are configured to service the requests from users. The attributes of the
servers are edited. Figure 45 shows the configuration of HTTP server. Others servers are
configured as well according to the offered services.
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Figure 45: HTTP server’s supported services
As it has been discussed in chapter 2, ISPs use BGP as a main routing protocol between their
routers. So, BGP is implemented between the routers. Basically, BGP configuration required
multiple steps that has been explained in chapter two. The first step is to choose the
autonomous systems and IP addresses for every router.
The attribute of each router is edited. Loopback interfaces are activated in all routers. Figure
46 shows how loopback interface is configured on the core router.
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Figure 46: adding loopback interface
Then, the autonomous system number is added. IP addresses and subnet mask are also
added to all interfaces that will run BGP. Routing protocols are also disabled on that
interfaces. BGP is enabled on all routers and the address schemes that will be used are
configured. Routers are also enabled to redistribute routes via RIP and direct connection.
Figure 47 shows enabling BGP on Tafillah access router.
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Figure 47: enabling BGP
Neighbour relationships is established between all routers. Figure 48 shows the neighbours
of middle centre’s core router. Neighbour relation is set up as the following:
• Core router of the north centre to Irbid access router.
• Core router of the north centre to Jerash access router.
• Core router of the north centre to Mafraq access router.
• Core router of the north centre to Ajloun access router.
• Core router of the north centre to core router of the middle centre.
• Core router of the middle centre to Amman access router.
• Core router of the middle centre to Madaba access router.
• Core router of the middle centre to Zarqa access router.
• Core router of the middle centre to Balqa access router.
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• Core router of the middle centre to core router of the south centre.
• Core router of the south centre to Karak access router.
• Core router of the south centre to Tafilah access router.
• Core router of the south centre to Aqaba access router.
• Core router of the south centre to Maan access router.
• All core routers to the internet.
• All routers to their Loopback interface.
Figure 48: the neighbours of middle centre’s core router
RIP is enabled on the interfaces which are connected to LANs and DSLAM. RIP on all
routers is configured to accept the redistribution of BGP and the directly connected
links into RIP as shown in figure 49.
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Figure 49: RIP redistribution
3.4 Topologies and Scenarios
Two topologies are produced according to the topology design. Those topologies will be
used to build different scenarios and compare between them in order to choose the most
efficient one. Figure 50 shows Topology 1 and Figure 51 shows Topology 2.
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Figure 50: Topology 1
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Figure 51: Topology 2
In this project six scenarios are built which are:
• Scenario one: topology 1, HTTP 1.0 and the other applications that we mentioned
above.
• Scenario two: topology 1, HTTP 1.1 with pipeline and the other applications that we
mentioned above.
• Scenario three: topology 1, HTTP 1.1 without pipeline and the other applications that
we mentioned above.
• Scenario four: topology 2, HTTP 1.0 and the other applications that we mentioned
above.
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• Scenario four: topology 2, HTTP 1.1 without pipeline and the other applications that
we mentioned above.
• Scenario six: topology 2, HTTP 1.1 with pipeline and the other applications that we
mentioned above.
3.5 Simulation
Choosing statistics that wanted to be discussed should be done before the simulation is
executed. After the statistics have been chosen, there are extra simulation attributes that
should be determined. For example, the simulation’s duration time to be run. The needed
statistics can be selected by clicking right anywhere in the workspace except on object.
Select “Choose Individual DES Statistics”. The following are chosen.
Global statistics:
• HTTP.
• VOIP.
• FTP.
• Email.
• BGP.
• RIP.
Node statistics:
• HTTP client.
• VOIP client.
• FTP client.
• Email client.
• HTTP server.
• VOIP server.
• FTP server.
• Email server.
Link statistics:
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• Queuing Delay
• Throughput
• Utilization
3.6 Results analysis and discussion
3.6.1 BGP
Network convergence
Figure 52: BGP network convergence activity
Figure 52 shows Records a square wave alternating between the ordinates 0 and 1. It is 0
during a time interval in which no signs of convergence activity are detected in the entire
network. It is 1 during a time interval in which signs of convergence are detected
somewhere in the network (Riverbed, 2015). At the first three munities, the network
convergence of all scenarios increases dramatically to reach about 0.045. Then, the three
scenarios of topology two increase faster than the three scenarios of topology one. the
three scenarios of topology two are around 0.13 at minute 10, while the three scenarios of
topology one are 0.1 at minute 10.
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Figure 53: BGP network convergence duration
Figure 53 illustrates the duration of convergence cycles for the BGP routing tables across the
whole network (Riverbed, 2015). The convergence of all scenarios are started after the first
minute of the simulation. The network convergence durations for the three scenarios of
topology one are similar to each other during the simulation. However, the network
convergence duration of the three scenarios of topology two increase sharply just below 3
at minute 3. Then, scenarios numbers five and six increase to around 3.75 at minute 4, while
scenario four goes down shortly to reach just above 2 at minute 10. Then, there are
considerable notice that the highest network convergence duration is scenario number five.
Traffic
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Figure 54: BGP Traffic received
Figure 54 represents the total BGP traffic received in (bits/sec) by all the BGP speaking
routers in the network under study. This statistic can be used to get an overall picture on
the amount of BGP traffic flowing across the network (Riverbed, 2015). The traffic of all
scenarios started after the first minute of the simulation. All scenarios go up sharply to
reach their peaks which are around 15,000. Then, all scenarios go down slightly until the end
of the simulation. Generally, BGP traffic received of scenario number five is the largest.
Figure 55: BGP Traffic sent
Figure 55 represents total BGP traffic sent in (bits/sec) by all the BGP speaking routers in the
network under study. This statistic can be used to get an overall picture on the amount of
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BGP traffic flowing across the network (Riverbed, 2015). The traffic of all scenarios start
after the first minute of the simulation. The BGP traffic sent of all scenarios go up sharply to
reach their peaks which are around 17,000 at the first minute. Then, BGP traffic sent of all
scenarios fluctuated around 14,000 during the simulation. Generally, the traffic sent of
topology two’s scenarios are higher than topology one’s scenarios.
3.6.2 Email
Download and upload
Figure 56: Email Download response time
Figure 56 shows the time between the request for email and the response from email server
in the network. This time involves signalling delay for the connection establishment
(Riverbed, 2015). All scenarios go up but the last three scenarios go up faster than the first
three scenarios. Scenarios number five and six are the slowest email download response
time.
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Figure 57: Email upload response time
Figure 57 shows time between sending emails to the email server and receiving
acknowledgments from the email server. This time involves signalling delay for the
connection establishment (Riverbed, 2015). All scenarios go up but the last three scenarios
go up faster than the first three scenarios. In general, Scenario number six is the slowest
email upload response time.
Traffic
Figure 58: Email traffic received
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Figure 58 shows the average bytes per second delivered to all email applications by the
transport layers in the network (Riverbed, 2015). In general, the email traffic received of all
scenarios quite similar to each other. All scenarios go up sharply to reach just around
75,000. Then, all scenarios go down slightly to reach just around 25,000 at the end of the
simulation.
Figure 59: Email traffic sent
Figure 59 represents average bytes per second traffic delivered to the transport layers by all
email applications in the network (Riverbed, 2015). In general, the email traffic sent of all
scenarios quite similar to each other. All scenarios go up sharply to reach just under 80,000.
Then, all scenarios go down slightly to reach just around 25,000 at the end of the simulation.
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3.6.3 Ethernet Delay
Figure 60: Ethernet delay
Figure 60 represents end to end delay of all packets received by all the stations. In general,
the Ethernet delay of all scenarios quite similar to each other. All scenarios go up sharply to
reach just around 0.0012. Then, all scenarios go down slightly to reach just around 0.0004 at
the end of the simulation. However, last three scenarios have more Ethernet delay than the
first three scenarios. Generally, the delays of all scenarios are acceptable.
3.6.4 FTP
Download and upload response time
Figure 61: FTP download response time
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Figure 62 shows time between sending a request to the FTP server and receiving the
response packet from it. All response packets sent from a FTP server to an FTP application is
involved in this statistic (Riverbed, 2015). All scenarios go up then they fluctuate until the
end of simulation. However, the last two scenarios go up faster than the first four scenarios.
Generally, Scenarios three and five are the slowest FTP download response time.
Figure 62: FTP upload response time
Figure 62 shows time between sending a file to clients or server and receiving the response.
The response time for response sent from any server to an FTP application is involved in this
statistic (Riverbed, 2015). All scenarios go up but the last three scenarios are faster than the
first three scenarios. Scenario number six is the highest FTP upload response time.
Traffic
Figure 63: FTP traffic received
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Figure 63 represents average byte per second forward to all FTP applications by the
transport layers in the network. FTP traffic received of all scenarios increase sharply after
the first minute. Then, all scenarios go down slightly until the end of simulation. The first
three scenarios go up higher than the last three scenarios. Generally, the traffic received by
the first three scenarios is larger than others.
Figure 64: FTP traffic sent
Figure 64 represents average bytes per second submitted to the transport layers by all FTP
applications in the network (Riverbed, 2015). All scenarios go up sharply to reach just
around 325,000. Then, all scenarios go down slightly to reach just around 100,000 at the
end of the simulation. All scenarios are quite similar to each other.
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3.6.5 HTTP
Object and page response time
Figure 65: HTTP object response time
Figure 65 shows specifies response time for each in-lined object from the HTML page
(Riverbed, 2015). All scenarios go up just before the second minute. Scenarios one, five and
six go up higher than others. It is clear that Scenario number five is the slowest http object
response time.
Figure 66: HTTP page response time
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Figure 66 shows time required to retrieve the entire page with all the contained in-line
objects. If the page contains a video that is not preloaded (i.e., streamed on-demand or lie
video), then the retrieval of that video is not taken into account for this statistic (Riverbed,
2015). Scenarios three and four go up from 1 at minute two to about 4.5 at minute four
then they go down shortly from minute four to minute seven. Next, they go up sharply to
reach around 12 at the end of simulation. The scenarios one and two go up shortly at
minute two to reach around 2 then they go down to reach just less than 6. Generally,
scenario one is the fastest http page response time.
Traffic
Figure 67: HTTP traffic received
Figure 67 represents average bytes per second forwarded to the HTTP applications by the
transport layers in the network. All scenarios go up but the first three scenarios are faster
and higher than the last three scenarios. First three Scenarios are the highest http traffic
received.
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Figure 68: HTTP traffic sent
Figure 68 represents average bytes per second submitted to the transport layer by all HTTP
applications in the network (Riverbed, 2015). All scenarios go up sharply but the first three
scenarios go up higher than the last three scenarios. Then, they go down slightly. Scenario
number four is the lowest http traffic received.
3.6.6 TCP
Figure 69: TCP delay
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Figure 69 represents TCP delay of packet received by the TCP layers in the complete
network, or all connections. It is measured from the time an application data packet is sent
from the source TCP layer to the destination node (Riverbed, 2015). It is clear that TCP
delays of the fifth scenario is too much higher than others.
Figure 70: TCP segment delay
Figure 70 represents TCP segment delay: it is measured from the time a TCP is sent from the
source TCP layer to the time it is received by the TCP layer in the destination node
(Riverbed, 2015). In general, TCP segment delays of the first three scenarios are less than
TCP segment delays of the last three scenarios. More specifically, the fifth scenario has the
highest TCP segment delay and the first one has the lowest TCP segment delay.
3.6.7 RIP
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Network convergence
Figure 71: RIP Network convergence
Figure 71 represents Network convergence duration: records the duration of convergence
cycles for the RIP routing tables across the whole network. All scenarios fluctuated. But, it is
clear that the convergence of the last three scenarios are higher than the first three
scenarios.
Figure 72: RIP Network activity
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Figure 72 represents rip network convergence of the six scenarios. All scenarios go up
slightly. After minute 3, the last three scenarios go up faster and higher than the first three
scenarios until the end of simulation.
Traffic
Figure 73: RIP traffic received
Figure 73 represents rip traffic received of the six scenarios. In general, rip traffic received
delays of the first, second and third scenarios are less than rip traffic received of fourth, fifth
and sixth scenarios.
Figure 74: RIP traffic sent
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Figure 74 represents total number of RIP update traffic sent per second by all the IP
interfaces using RIP as their protocol in this network. In general, even all scenarios go up,
the rip traffic sent of the first three scenarios are less than rip traffic sent of the last three
scenarios.
3.6.8 Voice
Jitter
If two successive packets leave the source node with time stamps t1 & t2 and are played
back at the destination node at time t3 & t4, then jitter = (t4-t3) – (t2 – t1) negative jitter
indicates that the time difference between the packets at the destination node was less
than at source node.
Figure 75: voice jitter
Figure 75 shows voice jitter. The jitter of all scenarios starts just before minute two. The first
three scenarios go up to about 0.00020 then they go down slowly until the end of
simulation. In the other hand, the fourth, fifth and sixth scenarios go up sharply to around
0.00055 then they go down slightly until be quite similar to the first three scenarios. The
sixth scenario go up sharply to around 0.00060 then it go down slightly until be quite similar
to the other scenarios.
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Packet delay
Figure 76: voice end to end delay packet
Figure 76 represents the total voice packet delay, called analog to analog or mouth to ear
delay = network_ delay + encoding_delay + decoding delay +
compression_delay_decompression_delay + dejitter_buffer_delay. Network delay is the
time at which the sender node gave the packet to RTP to the time the receiver got it from
RTP.Encoding delay (on the sender node) is computed from the encoder scheme. Decoding
delay (on the receiver node) is assumed to be equal to the encoding delay. It is clear that
delay of the three scenarios are higher that the first three scenarios.
Figure 77: voice packet delay variation
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Figure 77 shows variance among end to end delay for voice packet. End to end delay for a
voice packet is measured from the time it is created to the time it is received. . It is clear
that delay of the three scenarios are higher that the first three scenarios. Scenario number
five has the highest delay variation.
Traffic
Figure 78: Voice traffic received
Figure 78 shows the average number of bytes per second forwarded to all voice applications
by the transport layers in the network (Riverbed, 2015). All scenarios are quite similar to
each other until the third minute, they increases slightly then go down slowly until minute
six. After that, all scenarios go up slowly, except scenario two that go up sharply.
Figure 79: Voice traffic sent
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Figure 79 shows average number of bytes per second submitted to the transport layers by
all voice applications in the network. All scenarios are quite similar to each other, they
increases slightly until the end of the simulation.
3.6.9 Objects analysis
Figure 80: Client email download response time of Ajloun LAN
Figure 80 shows the time between the request for email and the response from email server
in the network. This time involves signalling delay for the connection establishment
(Riverbed, 2015). The last three scenarios go up sharply, then go down slightly. However,
the first three scenarios response time is just above zero during the simulation. Generally,
Scenario number four is the slowest email download response time.
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Figure 81: Client ftp download file size of Ajloun LAN
Figure 81 shows the client ftp download file size from FTP server in the network. All
scenarios are stable during the simulation and have the same file size. The ftp download file
size around 50,000 bytes.
Figure 82: Ajloun LAN client ftp download response time
Figure 82 shows time between sending a request to the FTP server and receiving the
response packet from it in Ajloun LAN. All response packets sent from a FTP server to an FTP
application is involved in this statistic. All scenarios almost are stable except scenario
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number five. It goes up sharply at minute nine of the simulation. Scenario number five is the
slowest FTP download response time.
Figure 83: Ajloun LAN Client Http download page
Figure 83 shows time between sending a request to the HTTP server from Ajloun LAN and
receiving the response packet. All response packets sent from a HTTP server to an HTTP
application is involved in this statistic. All scenarios go up speedily except scenario number
three. Then they go down slightly to around 0.7. However, scenario three is the most stable
one, it is just above zero.
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Figure 84: Ajloun LAN client http user cancelled
Figure 84 shows average of client http user cancelled. All scenarios are around zero until
nearly minute three, then they go up slightly until the end of the simulation. Scenario
number six has the lowest number of client http user cancelled.
Figure 85: Core router in middle centre ip processing delay
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Figure 85 shows IP processing delay of core router in the middle centre. The first two
scenarios are the fastest IP processing. The other scenarios are slower than the first two.
However, IP processing delay for all of them are acceptable.
Figure 86: Middle centre’s FTP server performance load (request)
Figure 86 shows FTP server performance load in the middle centre. All scenarios goes up
sharply after the first minute then, goes down slightly until the end of the simulation.
Scenario number six has the lowest ftp server performance load.
Figure 87: Middle centre’s FTP server performance task processing
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Figure 87 shows FTP server performance task processing in the middle centre. The first
three scenarios are the lowest performance. The other scenarios have higher performance
than the first two. All scenarios’ server performance are stable during the simulation.
Figure 88: Middle centre’s HTTP server load request
Figure 88 shows HTTP server load Request in the middle centre. All scenarios go up sharply
after the first minute then, go down slightly until the end of the simulation. Scenario
number four has the lowest load requests.
Figure 89: Middle centre’s HTTP server performance
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Figure 89 shows HTTP server performance in the middle centre. The sixth and fourth
scenarios go up sharply after the first minute then, go down slightly until the end of the
simulation. The other scenarios go up shortly, then go down until they be stable.
Figure 90: Middle centre’s HTTP server TCP delay
Figure 90 shows HTTP server TCP delay in the middle centre. The first scenario’s delay is just
above zero. The last two scenarios have the highest TCP delay. Geneally, scenarios five and
six are the largest TCP delay.
Figure 91: PC client HTTP page response time
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Figure 91 shows HTTP page response time in the middle centre. The response time of all
scenarios are stable during the simulation. However, the second scenario is the fastest
response.
Figure 92: PC voice jitter
Figure 92 shows PC voice Jitter. The fourth scenario starts at minute two with about 0.00060
then it goes down to be stable just above 0.00010 until the end of the simulation.
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3.6.10 Routing Tables
Appendixes A represents the access router table in Ajloune. The router have a route to all
internetworks in the ISP. The routing table consists of nine columns which are:
• Destination.
• Source protocol.
• Route reference.
• Metric.
• Next hope address.
• Next hope node.
• Outgoing interface.
• Outgoing LSP.
• Insertion time (sec).
Appendixes B represents the core router table in Middle centre. The router have a route to
all internetworks in the ISP. The routing table consists of nine columns same as the access
router table in Ajloune above.
Chapter 4 Conclusion and Future Work
4.1 Conclusion
An IP backbone network has been built for Jordan ISP, which is prepared based on a
sequence of comparison between various scenarios in many aspects of network design. The
project has been begun by hand out background literature on ISP network design and
different network technologies and techniques for building ISP, routing configurations and
internet applications. Internet service providers that wants to thrive should obviously
determine their aims that will bring the network design. A trade-off should be done
between project requirements. The design have many network configurations and
topologies. The background literature has also referred to different network layers and their
technologies such as SONET and DSL. It has showed how important to understand the
network addressing methods and the relation between them. This background has helped
to understand ISP BGP network design, which plays role in this project primary focus.
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The administrative division and internet users of the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan have
described. The number of users and the technologies they prefer should be known. The
technologies implemented should base on number of users and the applications they use.
Due to the large number of users and the large area that covers, availability is the most
important goal. However, high availability needs high cost, so network is designed to
achieve availability while keeping cost by building a partial mesh network.
Services that are offered by the ISP has been generally discussed. Identifying the properties
of each application and the traffic generated is also identified. The flow of communication
within the ISP should be considered to specify the capacity of the links and the network
structure.The traffic flow is evaluated between provinces, servers. Point of presence are
also identified that led to the selected topology. The network is designed in a hierarchical
structure which are core and access.
Core nodes are located in Irbid, Amman and Karaka whereas access nodes are located in
middle of each Province. The connectivity design problem between core nodes are
addressed by considering routing, bandwidth and distance as the main factors. Links are
chosen to come up with appropriate data rate while keeping cost as much as possible. The
topologies have been tested for fail recovery (redundancy) and applications performance.
All scenarios have shown high availability, because if a link between two provinces goes
down, they will contact each other through the internet links but this is not recommended
because it may need peering. So, topology two is more available than topology one.
The design has been compared between different http settings. According to the results,
http 1.1 without pipeline has shown the fastest response time and the most appropriate
applications performance. The results has also shown that http pipeline is not very fast nor
slow. The results have also shown that topology two more available than topology one.
To sum up, The results of the simulation have proved that scenario with topology two, http
1.1, without pipeline is the most appropriate one for the aims’ of the project. The scenario
has shown a high availability, high applications response, acceptable jitter and small voice
packet delay. Some scenarios has shown better results than it in some data analysis.
However, as it has been mentioned above, trade off has be done to get the right scenario.
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4.2Limitation and Recommendations
• OPNET is upgraded during the project, this create some problems such as Access
denied. Some screen shots are taken from the new version because the last version
is stopped before the project is finished. So it would be better to upgrade OPNET
during charismas or Easter holiday not during the third block because many students
use OPNET for their projects in the third block.
• It would be better to simulate the project in a commercial edition of OPNET Modeler
with all components as explicit traffic to obtain more precise and accurate results.
4.3Future Work
Unfortunately, the short time did not permit to implement more services. As future work,
Quality of service could be implemented on the project. The Quality of service methods
could be discussed, in order to find the most suitable one for the project. It also could be
used to give priority for companies over residents.
Another thing that could be done is to implement Wi Max in the provinces because more
and more customers prefer to change from wired to wireless networks. VPN also could be
implemented to extend a private network across the ISP’s network.
Finally, this project could be implemented practically to compare between the practical and
the simulation results.
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Adamos, V. (2004). MSc thesis. Greek Business Network.
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Creating and Configuring Loopback Interfaces. (2015). Retrieved from Informit:
http://www.informit.com/library/content.aspx?b=CCNA_Practical_Studies&seqNum=45
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Appendix A:
Appendix A is in the CD. Please open it to see the access router table in Ajloune.
Appendix B:
Appendix A is in the CD. Please open it to see the core router table in Middle centre.
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