Yemen and the Houthi want to take Yemen
Yemen and the Houthi want to take Yemen
Recently, the Houthi’s rebels dissolved the parliament of the country. They announced a five-member panel that will be working as a presidential council. It will also function as an interim government for the next couple of years. However, new parliament will be formed considering the current crisis in the nation. The resignation of Yemeni President Abd-Rabbu Mansour Hadi has left the country without a proper government to function. There are several issues arising across the nation, for which it calls up for an analysis.
The purpose of this report is to highlight the major issues and challenges of the downturn in Yemen. This report is intended to be present before the government of Yemen as well as the United Nations so that they can get aware of the major challenges in Yemen. The report after analyzing all these causes even mentions the recommendations to overcome these challenges.
During the time of unification of North and South Yemen, both these nations were economically weak and had underdeveloped economic systems. Post the Persian Gulf War Saudi Arabia expelled about 1 million Yemeni workers. Both Saudi Arabia and Kuwait reduced their respective economic aid to Yemen. In addition, the Civil War of 1994 in Yemen drained the economy of Yemen to a further extent. As a result, the government totally failed in addressing all the issues of the people (Rutter, 1994).
To increase the credibility of Yemen, International Monetary Fund (IMF) approved two programs. These two programs were the extended funding facility (EFF) and the enhanced structural adjustment facility. They were designed with a view to reduce poverty and create more employment opportunities within the nation. Such programs will further help the nation to boost their economy in the near future (Chase-Lansdale & Brooks-Gunn, 1995).
The government attempted to implement certain reforms that would eliminate diesel and other subsidies, reduce the civil service payroll, introduce general sales tax, lower the net defense spending, and privatize many of the state-run industries. The situation however, did not improve too much and the government still required huge funds for shaping the entire economy in a better way. As a result, rebellions started their rebel to overcome this issue and destabilize the current government.
To understand the different issues and challenges regarding the economic downturn in Yemen, this paper will be adopting the methodological approach of meta-analysis of several researches carried out in this direction. It will incorporate the major facts obtained from the United Nations as well as the local authorities (Duncan & Rodgers, 1988). It will help in determining the true factors of such crisis, as well as will also help in providing certain solutions that will help in curbing these issues.
Why problems arose in Yemen?
The overall industrial output at the domestic level was quite low. Yemen had to depend on a wide variety of imports due to lack of raw materials. Further, there was a huge issue related to the protection of oil pipelines. Several oil pipelines were attacked by either the terrorist groups or the internal rebellion groups due to which it caused a lot to Yemen.
As per the reports provided by the Yemen Central Bank in February 2014, oil revenues declined by about $87 million as compared to the last year. The oil revenues of January 2013 were around $301 million, while on the other hand the oil revenues for January 2014 were around $214. This decline was due to limited exploration and due to an overall decrease in the oil reserves in Yemen. Following the 2011 revolution, there were several attacks on the oil pipelines, which caused a lot of destruction. As a result, people had to face several economic issues all-round the given financial year.
· Oil Production – The Backbone of the Yemen Economy
As per one of the research reports presented by the United Nations in 2013, the oil production in Yemen generates around 80 percent of the total national revenues. There are even issues regarding infrastructure and oil exploration activities. The government is not even able to carry out the necessary oil exploration due to lack of technologies and due to shortage of funds (Provence, 2005). This will have a direct impact on the investments related to oil production and oil exploration.
Looking at this scenario, United Nations during February 2014 passed a resolution to monitor the activities that are obstructing the political transition in Yemen. As per this resolution, it will form a committee that will have necessary power to freeze and individual’s assets that are involved in the acts to derail the political process of Yemen. The government is thereby hopeful that the attacks on the oil pipelines will eventually reduce and at the same time the infrastructure facilities for oil exploration and oil production will improve subsequently.
· Water Shortage Issues
There is an additional problem of water shortage in the entire nation. As per the reports produced by the United Nations in 2013, Yemen is considered to be seventh most water-scarcity nation in the entire world. The researchers and scientists have predicted that, Sana will be the first capital in history that will run out of water resource in the next 10 years, if proper steps are yet not taken.
Water scarcity issues have come into the picture due to inefficient distribution of the total water supply. Nearly 90 percent of the total water supply is used for the agriculture purpose (Berman, 2001). As a result, people are not able to get the desired water resource for their respective household purpose. Yemen expert Charles Schmitz mentions that, “The state needs to regulate groundwater withdrawals to maintain a sustainable rate of pumping, and it needs to introduce water conservation measures in agriculture and in urban areas.”
· Lower Productivity
Another major challenge faced by the Yemen government from the economical perspective is the lower productivity levels of male. It has been discovered that, nearly 70 percent of the total males are addicted to narcotic drugs such as qat. As a result, the production of gat crop has increased as compared to other general crops. The production of qat requires more water and hence majority of water resource is utilized for qat production.
· Famine Issues
There is another major issue of famine that poses major challenges in front of the Yemen government. As per the recent governmental reports of Yemen in 2013, around 10 million Yemenis, which constitute around 44 percent of the total population, are under-nourished conditions. In addition, about 5 million people need emergency aid for their sustainability.
· Increase in Refugees in Yemen
As per the United Nations report in 2013, there were about 367,000 Yemenis that were displaced due to the Houthi rebellion and other domestic clashes. During these clashes, about 53,000 people fled their homes and more than 170,000 people have been displaced due to the on-going war between the government and the Al Qaeda militants.
Some of the people of Aden have taken refuge in Yemen due to constant aerial bombardments and war-lie situations. In addition, the country has even absorbed around 350,000 refugees from Somalia (Inglehart & Welzel, 2009). However, the government claims that majority of these people have joined criminal gangs and armed groups and are now rebelling against the Yemen government.
The Civil War
Further, during the Civil War, the actions of the military and security forces were described as violations of human rights by the United Nations. UN reports have mentioned that, during this war, there were firings on the peaceful crowds, there were brutal interrogations, there were sexual abuse of both men and women, there were gang rapes on the young girls, and, so on.
There was no one available from either the government side or from the local authoritative agency side, who could help the general public, including small children and young girls. Under all these given conditions, it is the moral responsibility of the government of Yemen and the United Nations to curb down all these activities and take serious steps toward the positive development of Yemen.
Other Major Issues
A person suffering from poverty in Yemen is deprived of getting choices and opportunities, and hence he lacks the basic capacity to participate in the given social society. He is deprived of food and clothing, is not able to get the services of education and medicine, and thus is separated altogether from today’s society. He is not even having access to any kind of income sources, due to which even his family suffers a lot in such situations.
Also, he suffers from issues such as powerlessness, insecurity, and exclusion due to lower status in the given society. They are exposed to violent and fragile environments, and are deprived of clean water and sanitation facilities (Wright, 2008). Thus, overall if we observe they are deprived of each and every thing, which in turn might even lead to suicide cases for them.
Besides, due to poverty, it is difficult for these people to provide educational facilities to their children. And, hence, it results into increase of illiteracy amongst them. The costs of healthcare have also risen, and hence, it is difficult for these people to access insurance. They are not in the proper financial state to serve several needs related to health and nutrition.
It also results into spread of diseases related to nutrition deficiency and other health disorders. The government and the developed nations thereby need to take proper steps to curb poverty. They need to pour in money for the development of infrastructure, education facilities, and modes of trade. This will also help people of Yemen in getting sufficient opportunities for employment, through which they would be able to earn sustainable living.
It is very much important to motivate and encourage people of Yemen for engaging into one or the other employment activities. The new rebel groups need to frame special policies that will help them in providing employment opportunities to the adults, education facilities to the children, mid-day meal programs for all those who live below the poverty line, and providing basic provisional items at a very reasonable cost (Epstein, 2006). This would at least provide some relief in solving the issues faced by the given community.
People of Yemen lag behind in terms of technology, skilled man-power, appropriate infrastructure and servicing facilities. So, the government needs to first take steps that will improve the infrastructure and provide the sources for different business activities. Any investments by the private entities of the foreign nations will help in fostering the economic growth of the nation. It will also help in removing poverty, creating more employment opportunities, and in framing proper trading rules and regulations. It would also ease the trade barriers for the investment companies in the given nation.
Also, the strengthening of ties between the developed and the less developing nations will also help in the development of the other sectors for the less developed nation. The developed nations can help these countries by providing appropriate technologies, necessary healthcare services, military equipment, and other kind of similar support.
They are socially backward as compared to the people of the developed nations. However, they can capitalize on the opportunities of building new infrastructure for their industries and education. This will create more employment opportunities, will increase their oil revenues and will even educate the new generation.
But, they need to remain cautious about the threats against their nation such as the security threats, the decreasing oil revenues due to depletion of the oil resources and lack of proper administration on the part of the entire government. They need to take help of the United Nations and several other developed nations in order to overcome their threats and build upon the opportunities so as to develop the economy of the entire nation.
To overcome the present problem, poverty reduction and solving the security concerns for protecting oil pipelines should be the major goal for not only the government of Yemen, but also of several international organizations that are working under the leadership of United Nations and the World Bank.
These organizations need to implement strategies that will help in generating more income for all the families, so that they are at least capable of earning their basic needs. These organizations are providing every facility that shall increase economic welfare and freedoms, and shall subsequently eradicate the issues of poverty in Yemen.
The rebels in association with the government should provide the basic necessities and food at a very low cost to these people through special distribution system. Further, there have been also cultural factors identified that could add fuel to the fire to the given poor class of people. These factors include stereotyping, age discrimination, racial discrimination, and gender discrimination. It is due to these factors that Max Weber has suggested that cultural values can affect the economic success of the entire nation (Knapp et al., 1991). It is, therefore, important to educate the society, and make them understand about the equal status of all the people.
It is an alarming time for the government of Yemen to take steps in the direction of accessing the basic needs, providing appropriate food and nutrition, providing necessary and required healthcare and education, controlling over-population, increasing the personal income of these families, securing the oil pipelines and finally removing all the constraints that are turning out to be major hindrances in the economic development of the entire nation.
The present committee can plan implementing policies that will first of all provide the basic necessities of food, water, shelter, sanitation facilities, and healthcare to these people. It is important to provide enough earning opportunities, so that they can at least earn their livelihood. The government can implement employment programs, specifically for this class of people.
They need to provide free education to the children of these families. It can open government schools that will provide education free of costs to the children of these families. The government can also open up medical and healthcare centers, wherein people will be able to get medicines and other check-up services either at minimal costs or at free of costs.
The new policies should be designed so as to eliminate all the disparity and install the values of modernization. The policies should be implemented in such a way that – (1) it will increase the focus on quality healthcare services (2) it will secure the oil pipelines (3) it will remove poverty, provide education to the people of Yemen and (4) it will provide more income opportunities to the people of Yemen. With the implementation of the new policies, the government should try to eliminate all the different types of disparity.
Increasing Human Security in Yemen
Human security is an emerging concept for understanding the global problems whose proponents challenge the traditional understanding of national security. This is because human security argues that the proper referent of security is supposed to be individual rather than the state.
In a given scenario of Yemen, providing security to those individuals would mean in terms of financial and social sustainability. We can relate the situation of poverty among people of Yemen to the general scarcity of the daily necessities such as food, water, and shelter. People of Yemen lack all these things and other material possessions, due to lack of money.
There is another term absolute poverty, which is defined for these people that are deprived of basic human needs, which include food, water, shelter, clothing, sanitation, education, and basic health care facilities. It can be due to more income, or due to difference in the location, or due to other socio-cultural issues (Duncan & Brooks-Gunn, 1997).
Poverty reduction is the major goal for not only the government of all the nations, but also of several international organizations that are working under the leadership of United Nations and the World Bank. These two organizations are implementing strategies that will help in generating more income for all the families, so that they are at least capable of earning their basic needs. The EIA program is providing every facility that shall increase economic welfare and freedoms, and shall subsequently eradicate the issues of poverty among the people of Yemen.
The United Nations, the World Health Organization and the World Bank need to come forward and engage other developed nations to provide the necessary help and assistance to Yemen so that they can help in the economic development of Yemen. Even, people from Yemen need to build them on Modernization and try to adapt to the new changing environment so that they can prosper in a better way.
They need to implement technological solutions and adopt the principles of modernization so that they can challenge the power and importance of the developed nations. For this purpose, the government of Yemen needs to focus upon infrastructure and developing people. Yemen needs to build upon strong economic policies that will help them to overcome all the barriers and challenges of today’s contemporary world.
Provence, M. (2005). The Spread of Rebellion. Texas: University of Texas Press.
Berman, S.E. (2001). Modernization in Historical Perspective: The Case of Imperial Germany. World Politics, 53(3), 431-462.
Inglehart, R., & Welzel, C. (2009). How Development Leads to Democracy. Foreign Affairs, 88(2), 33-48.
Epstein, D.L. (2006). Democratic Transitions. American Journal of Political Science, 50(3), 551-569.
Wright, R. (2008). Dreams and Shadows: The Future of the Middle East. New York: Penguin Press.
Knapp, M., Adelman, N., Needels, M., Zucker, A., McCollum, H., Turnbull, B., Marder, C., & Shields, P. (1991). What is taught, and how, to the children of poverty: Interim Report from a two-year investigation. Washington, DC: United States Department of Education, Office of Planning, Budget and Evaluation.
Duncan, G.J., & Brooks-Gunn, J. (1997). Consequences of growing up poor. New York: Russell Sage Foundation.
Duncan, G.J., & Rodgers, W.L. (1988). Longitudinal aspects of childhood poverty. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 50(4), 1007-1021.
Chase-Lansdale, P.L., & Brooks-Gunn, J. (1995). Escape from poverty: What makes a difference for children? New York: Cambridge University Press.
Rutter, M. (1994). Beyond longitudinal data: Causes, consequences, changes and continuity. Journal of Counseling and Clinical Psychology, 62(5), 928-990.
Power Point Presentation
· The Drop-box link for the presentation is as follows: